Difference between revisions of "Trade"

From Europa Universalis 4 Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (Privateering: Added the "Hunt Pirates" section. Someone may move this if it is more appropriate elsewhere.)
(Mercantilism: 2 events)
Line 132: Line 132:
Certain events, decisions and missions give permanent increases or decreases to mercantilism, some of these are:
Certain events, decisions and missions give permanent increases or decreases to mercantilism, some of these are:
* {{green|+10%}} {{icon|mercantilism}} {{flag|England|0}} '''English''' [[England#Designate Calais as The Staple Port|Designate Calais as The Staple Port]] decision
* {{green|+10%}} {{icon|mercantilism}} {{flag|England|0}} '''English''' [[England#Designate Calais as The Staple Port|Designate Calais as The Staple Port]] decision
* {{green|+7%}} {{icon|mercantilism}} '''×2''' {{flag|Ayutthaya|0}} '''Ayutthayan''' [[Ayutthayan events|''Prasat T'ang's Economic Reforms'' and ''Phrabat Somdet Phra Chairachathirat'']] events.
* {{green|+5%}} {{icon|mercantilism}} {{icon|chinese}} '''Chinese technology''' [[Decisions#Close Foreign Trade|Close Foreign Trade]] decision
* {{green|+5%}} {{icon|mercantilism}} {{icon|chinese}} '''Chinese technology''' [[Decisions#Close Foreign Trade|Close Foreign Trade]] decision
* {{green|+5%}} {{icon|mercantilism}} [[File:Revolution.png|28px|link=Disasters#Revolution]] '''Revolution disaster''' event ''[[Revolution events#The Revolution is here|The Revolution is here]]''
* {{green|+5%}} {{icon|mercantilism}} [[File:Revolution.png|28px|link=Disasters#Revolution]] '''Revolution disaster''' event ''[[Revolution events#The Revolution is here|The Revolution is here]]''

Revision as of 12:26, 21 November 2016

This article deals with the trade network and trade income. For information about trade goods and their production and value, see trade goods.
Trade nodes

Trade and production of trade goods are two of the three main sources of income for a country, the third being taxes. Every province produces trade goods, which give production income to their owner directly. The trade value of the goods then enters a system of trade nodes, where it is steered and eventually collected by merchants as trade income.


The trade system in game can be summarized as follows:

  • Trade nodes across the world are connected to form a global network of trade. Each node hosts the trade activity of a group of geographically associated provinces. Money in this global trade network can flow between trade nodes in unidirectional trade routes as well as terminate at end nodes. These connections between trade nodes are fixed and cannot be altered during the course of play.
  • Trade value represents the monthly sum of locally produced and incoming trade goods in a trade node. Trade value is generated from the quantity and price of produced trade goods in each province. All provinces pool their trade value into the total trade value of their associated trade node. The trade tab provides an aggregate trade value in a node while the trade map mode displays a tool tip listing locally produced separately from incoming trade good values.
  • Trade power is a raw number representing a country's control over trade in a node. The raw trade power of a country over the total trade power of all countries present in the node determines what will happen to the trade value in each node. Power is used either to retain trade value within the node (if the nation is collecting with a merchant or at its home node), or to transfer it forward in the trade network (if the nation is steering from there with a merchant, or it's not its home node and it has no merchant). Trade power is generated by provinces, light ships, and merchants. Certain ideas, events and modifiers can also affect a country's trade power in a node.
  • Merchants can be sent to a trade node to collect a portion of the node's trade value proportional to the nation's share of trade power in the node, or steer the node's trade value in a particular direction.

Trade nodes

See also: Trade nodes

The provinces in the world are divided into geographical groups that are each associated with a trade node. Trade nodes can physically reside in a land or sea province, but this merely determines whether it is subject to various inland trading modifiers or allows the operation of privateers and trade ships. Actual ownership of the province in which a trade node resides has no a priori effect on its function.

Every trade node has a predefined set of upstream and downstream nodes, which trade value can flow from and to, respectively. All trade value entering a trade node from upstream will either be collected there or transferred downstream to another trade node. Collecting in a trade node converts a country's share of trade value there directly into ducats.

Home nodes are trade nodes in which a nation's main trading port resides (see Capital). All nations will automatically collect their share of trade value from their home nodes, and send trade value towards it from other nodes if possible. The main trade port is typically located in a nation's capital, but it can be moved for 200 Diplomatic power.png with the Wealth of Nations DLC.

All non-home nodes are classified as domestic or foreign. A node is labeled domestic if 20% of the provincial trade power is held by the nation. For these purposes a home node is considered domestic.[1]. The distinction comes into play in two cases:

  • certain ideas, traditions etc. give bonus to trade power specifically in domestic or foreign trade nodes,
  • if a nation encounters overextension it suffers a -1% penalty to trade power per point of overextension in foreign nodes but not in domestic nodes.

Nations which have trade power in a node have influence over the node's trade value proportional to their share of total trade power. This influence can be exercised by a merchant in one of two ways:

  • Collect Trade: Trade Income Tradeview income.png
Collecting from a trade node will convert a nation's share of trade power into trade value which is collected as trade income (ducats). Trade income modifiers will be applied as necessary.
A nation will automatically collect in a home node (main trading port) and can dispatch a merchant to collect trade in any other node. Collecting trade in a non-home node will halve the trade power of the nation in that node. For example, in the beginning of the game France is collecting trade in the Genoa node. In the trade summary screen, France's trade power in the node is 16, 29.5 from provinces, 2 from a merchant and a -50% modifier for collecting trade. However, if a merchant is sent to collect in a node, the collected income will increase by +10%.
  • Transfer trade power: Trade Value Trade value.png
If a nation is not collecting in a node, but does collect from another node somewhere downstream, even through multiple hops, then its share of trade value will be added to the outgoing trade value of the node. Outgoing trade value is forwarded to directly connected downstream trade nodes. The distribution of outgoing trade value among these downstream nodes is determined by the trade power of nations who have dispatched a merchant to steer trade at the node. If no merchants are steering trade, then the outgoing trade value will be split evenly among all directly connected downstream nodes. Every merchant steering trade grants +10% bonus to trade power in the home node. It is strategically important to note that the bonus to trade power in the home node does not apply if a nation uses a merchant to collect trade anywhere.

If a nation is not collecting in a node, nor any node downstream, even through multiple hops, then it is not eligible to influence trade value in this node. The nation's share of trade value is then redistributed among nations that are eligible. Thus trade power of the nation in this node is effectively wasted.[2] The nation can still benefit from propagation effect though. Sending a merchant to such a node either to collect or transfer will make nation eligible for trade value in a normal way.

Trade value

See also: Trade goods

Trade value represents ducats (money) in the trade network.

Local trade value

All trade value first enters the trade system as local trade value. The local trade value of a node is the sum of the trade value of all provinces belonging to the node. On a provincial level, trade value is the amount of local goods produced multiplied by their price. In the trade map mode hovering the mouse over a trade node will open a box showing the local trade value.

Total trade value

Total trade value in a trade node is the sum of local trade value (from provinces), incoming trade value (from upstream trade nodes), minus outgoing trade value (to downstream trade nodes). Total trade value is distributed among countries with trade power in the node. Total trade value of trade nodes can be found in the ledger under Trade/Trade Nodes category in the list of trade nodes. The summary of trade value can be found in the trade node view panel as a tooltip which shows the retained trade value that is total trade value less outgoing trade value [3].

Multiple merchant bonus

In addition to steering outgoing trade value through a particular outgoing link, each merchant applies a boost to the trade value on that link---that is, the steered trade value increases by a percentage as it passes between the two nodes, so that the incoming trade value of the downstream node is larger than the corresponding outgoing trade value of the upstream node. This affects all trade on that link, not just the merchant's country, so multiple merchants can boost trade on the same link. The total boost is:

Merchants Boost Cumulative
0 0.0% 0.0%
1 +5.0% +5.0%
2 +2.5% +7.5%
3 +1.6% +9.1%
4 +1.2% +10.3%
5 +1.0% +11.3%

Having more than five merchants will not increase the boost further. The boost is modified by the country's trade steering: for example, if the first merchant's country has +20% trade steering the boost from the merchant will be increased to +6.0%. Currently the merchant order is unsorted, so the merchant with the highest trade steering will not necessarily be first.

Trade power

Countries manipulate trade via trade power in each node, which affects where trade value ends up.

Trade power can be used either to collect from a node or to transfer (forward) trade downstream. A country's share of local trade power determines its share of local trade value. That is, the larger a country's share of local trade power, the larger the share of the money in that node that country can collect or transfer. Absolute amount of trade power is unimportant; what matters is what proportion of total power in the node it represents. If a nation has 100% of power in a node, adding more will not help that nation.

The proportion of trade value forwarded from a node is proportional to the trade power of all nations in a node forwarding from it. The division between power used to forward and power used to collect is shown in a pie chart on the trade node window. The direction in which the trade is steered is proportional to the trade power only of nations with merchants steering trade from that node. A nation with little power in a node can completely determine the direction of outgoing trade if it is the only nation with a merchant present. If no merchant is present at a node, outgoing trade is divided evenly between the outgoing links, except that no trade will be forwarded to an undiscovered node (for example, no unsteered trade will go from Mexico to Nippon until the Pacific route is explored).

Trade power sources

A country's trade power in a trade node is determined by:

Provincial trade power

Historical centers of trade (as of 1.9). Legend: religious center toll river estuary center of trade other
Note that some provinces, e.g. Holland, have more than one of these modifiers.

Every province contributes an amount of trade power to its controller's country in the local trade node. The exact amount and relevant calculations can be seen in province view under Trade category. The base trade power is 0.2 per province development. Certain provinces gain bonus trade power if they are designated as centers of trade (+10), important natural harbor (+10), river estuaries (+10) or sound tolls (+20). These are denoted by special icons visible on the trade map, and when selecting the province in question. Trade power of the province is subject to various modifiers both global (e.g. +2% per point of a nation's mercantilism) and local (e.g. coastal provinces get +25% trade power bonus). Trade buildings also provide trade power bonus (up to +125%).

  • Merchant republics have the option of building 1 trade post (+10) per trade node in an owned province (except the home node) for -50 Administrative power.png adm points.

Provincial trade power modifiers

  • Certain ideas and policies improve provincial trade power.
Provincial trade power modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Colonial idea 2: Continental Trade
  • Mazovian idea 7: Central Emporium
  • Mamluk ambition
  • Gujarat Sultanate idea 5: Hub of the Indian Ocean Trade
  • Hanseatic idea 6: Regularized Contributions
  • Wallachian idea 2: Foreign Trade Restriction
  • Tverian traditions
  • Ainu idea 3: Southern Traders
  • Circassian idea 2: Merchants Of Genoa
  • Client State idea 5: Mercantile Privileges
  • Kanem Bornuan idea 7: Duties on Sahara Trade
  • Malabari idea 5: Control the Inland
  • Swabian idea 3: Land of the Free Cities
  • Three Leagues idea 6: An Economic League
  • Westphalian idea 7: Cities of the Rhineland
  • Yarkandi idea 7: Encourage Tarim Trade
  • Huron ambition
  • Berg traditions
  • Kutai traditions
  • Lan Na traditions
  • Pegu traditions
  • Rostov traditions
  • Shirvani traditions
  • Wurzburgian traditions
  • Amago idea 5: Dominate the Coastal Trade
  • Andean idea 2: Mountain Roads Network
  • Bremish idea 5: Vegesack Harbor
  • Butuan idea 5: Balangay
  • Dortmund idea 3: Chief City of the Rhine
  • Golden Horde idea 4: Secure the Trade Routes
  • Goslar idea 4: Capitalizing on the Hanseatic League
  • Kongo idea 5: The Triangle Trade
  • Luccan idea 2: Libertas!
  • Malvi idea 7: Malwa Opium
  • Rothenburg idea 6: The Holy Blood
  • Sami idea 4: Encourage growth of the Winter Market
  • Saluzzo idea 1: The Saluzzo Golden Age
  • Savoyard idea 6: Alpine Tolls
  • Saxe-Lauenburg idea 7: Old Salt Route
  • Silesian idea 6: Hanseatic Ties
  • Trent idea 4: Italy and the Empire

Transfers from traders downstream

Any nation that has at least 10 provincial trade power points in the node enjoys the propagation of that power upstream. An amount equivalent to 20% of the nation's provincial trade power (plus light ships) is added to the total trade power of that nation in every immediate upstream node where it is denoted as transfers from traders downstream.[4]


Mercantilism provides a bonus to Trade power.png provincial trade power equal to double the listed mercantilism percentage.[5] High mercantilism increases liberty desire in colonial subjects up to 25%.

The initial base mercantilism is Mercantilism.png 10% but some countries start with Mercantilism.png 25%:

Certain events, decisions and missions give permanent increases or decreases to mercantilism, some of these are:

Trade company

Main article: trade company

Provinces in trade companies get +100% provincial trade power. There are 15 regions throughout Asia and Africa which may have a trade company. [6]. Nodes with trade companies in them count as domestic trade nodes and can be collected at by a merchant without incurring penalties for overextension.

Light ships

Protect trade

A country may increase its trade power in maritime (non-inland) trade nodes by sending its light ships on Protect Trade mission. Light ships increase trade power in the trade node in which they are protecting trade by a base ranging from 2 per ship (Barque, diplomatic technology 2) up to 5 per ship (Great frigate, diplomatic technology 26).

Diplomatic technology Ship Trade power
2 Barque 2
9 Caravel 2.5
15 Early Frigate 3
19 Frigate 3.5
23 Heavy Frigate 4
26 Great Frigate 5

Note that each light ship also increases the total trade power in the node, so the relative increase per light ship is:

Thus for example, adding a single ship with a trade power of 2 to a node with a total trade power of 20 would be a relative increase of 2/(20+2) = 0.0909…, while adding a second such ship to the node would be a relative increase of 2/(22+2) = 0.0833….

Some bonuses to ship trade power are:

Ship trade power.png Triggers
+20% Being in a Trade League
+5% Per Naval leader maneuver.png Maneuver skill of the fleet's admiral

Supply range

Light ships on protect trade missions can only be sent to trade nodes where the country already has trade power and the supply range is met. The limitation on supply range applies even when naval attrition is removed at Diplomatic tech.png diplomatic tech 22. If the trade range permits, a country can send a merchant to a node without any initial trade power and then follow up with light ships protecting trade (as long as these are within supply range). A good way to arrange for a favorable supply range is by gaining fleet basing rights from a nation in the vicinity of the target trade node.

Other sources of trade power

  • Merchant Present: The presence of a merchant increases a nation's trade power by +2.
  • Main trade port in area: A nation gets additional +5 trade power in its home node.
  • Protectorates and colonial nations provide their overlord with 50% of their trade power, while other nations can be persuaded (through diplomacy) or forced (through war) to transfer some of their trade power as well (trade transfer agreements no longer take a diplomatic relationship slot). As a note, personal unions and vassals do not transfer trade power to their suzerain. As such, vassals and personal unions may direct trade away from a preferred route or home trade node.

Trade power modifiers

Global trade power modifier

  • Certain ideas and policies improve global trade power.
Trade power.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Italian (cU) traditions
  • Expansion idea 7: Competitive Merchants
  • Trade idea 1: Shrewd Commerce Practice
  • Aragonese idea 5: Chartered Merchant Companies
  • Gujarat Sultanate ambition
  • Frankfurter traditions
  • Danziger idea 2: Vistula River Trade
  • Hamburger idea 1: Hanseatic City
  • Nuremberger idea 7: Nuremberg Exchange
  • Romanian idea 6: Phanariote Traders
  • Date ambition
  • Genevan traditions
  • Kiwi traditions
  • Münster traditions
  • Orleanaise traditions
  • Pisan traditions
  • Traditions of Theodoro
  • Venetian traditions
  • Veronese traditions
  • Anhalt idea 1: Mittelgebirge
  • Antemoro idea 6: Strengthen control over the Slave Trade
  • Arabian idea 5: Bedouin Traders
  • Arawak idea 3: Orinoco Trade
  • Butuan idea 2: Northern Nusantara
  • Byzantine idea 5: Byzantine Merchant Class
  • Cham idea 3: South Indian Connections
  • Chimu idea 6: Specialized Economy
  • Deccani idea 3: Privileges for Foreign Traders
  • Epirote idea 6: Entrepôt of the Adriatic
  • Gutnish idea 4: Rebuild the Trade
  • Hanseatic idea 1: The End of the Victual Brothers
  • Holstein idea 6: The Trade of Two Seas
  • Hormuz idea 5: Maintain Trading Monopoly
  • Indian Sultanate idea 5: Equality Under the Law
  • Mesoamerican idea 2: Altepetl
  • Milanese idea 6: Merchant Princes
  • Mogadishan idea 3: East African Gold Trade
  • Montferrat idea 6: Crossroad of Powers
  • Najdi idea 3: Ships of the Desert
  • Norwegian idea 5: Seize the Opportunity
  • Ogasawara idea 6: Improving the Nakasendo
  • Pagarruyung idea 2: Gold Trade
  • Portuguese idea 3: Feitorias
  • Pskovian idea 6: Arts and Crafts of Pskov
  • Rassid idea 3: Coffea Arabica
  • Ruthenian idea 4: East and West
  • Songhai idea 1: Gold To Salt Trade
  • Sulawesi idea 6: Entrepot of Trade
  • Tyrconnell idea 2: The Fisher King
  • Vijayanagar idea 1: Promotion of Trade
  • West African idea 3: Kola Nuts
  • Yemeni idea 2: Coffea Arabica
  • Berber ambition
  • Cebu ambition
  • Jaunpuri ambition
  • Malabari ambition
  • Pomeranian ambition
  • Swahili ambition
  • Diplomatic-Expansion: Commercial Embassies
  • Exploration-Innovative: Benign Neglect
  • Mamluk idea 1: Red Sea Trade
  • National idea 4: Contract Law
  • Novgorod idea 4: Control of the Hanseatic Kontor
  • West Indies idea 4: The American Trade Hub
  • Each colonial nation (of at least 10 provinces) provides +5% global trade power to its overlord.
  • Prestige.png Prestige provides between -15% and +15% global trade power.
  • Stability cost modifier.png Stability provides between -3% and +3% global trade power.
  • Power projection.png Power projection provides between 0 and +20% global trade power.
  • Reformed.png Reformed religion Monthly fervor increase.png Fervor power Trade provides +10% global trade power with Wealth of Nations DLC active.

Domestic trade power modifier

  • Nodes where a nation has a certain portion of provincial trade power share are considered domestic. Both oversea provinces and trade company provinces count. Domestic trade power refers to trade power in these nodes. Domestic trade nodes do not suffer from overextension.
  • Certain ideas and policies improve domestic trade power.
Trade power.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Muiscan traditions
  • Korean traditions
  • Ashikaga idea 4: Tosen-Bugyo
  • Beloozero idea 4: Northern Trade
  • Cascadian idea 5: Nootka Sound Trading
  • Ferraran idea 5: Resisting Venetian Control
  • Hungarian idea 6: Strengthen the Towns
  • Iroquois idea 3: Keepers of the Eastern Door
  • Lur idea 2: Jadda-ye Atabak
  • Rigan idea 3: Monopoly Rights
  • So idea 1: Wakan
  • Timurid idea 6: Control of the Silk Road
  • Transoxianian idea 6: Entrepôt of the Silk Road
  • Zambezi idea 3: Control of the Zambezi Trade
  • Ando idea 2: Ainu Trade
  • Mutapan idea 6: Controlling the Mutapan Riches
  • Offaly idea 3: River Trade
  • Ouchi idea 2: Korean Trade
  • Ragusan idea 2: Center of Trade
  • Trebizondian idea 6: Terminus of the Silk Road
  • Tunisian idea 6: Export Monopolies
  • Kutai ambition
  • Crimean idea 2: Slavers of the Steppe
  • Leinster idea 2: The Black Rent
  • Lüneburger idea 1: Hanseatic Contacts
  • Medri Bahri idea 6: Promote the Red Sea Trade
  • Munster idea 1: North Sea Fishermen
  • Otomo idea 4: Welcoming the Nanban Trade
  • Utsunomiya idea 3: Barrier of Shirakawa
  • Afghan traditions
  • Danziger traditions
  • Hausan traditions
  • Kono traditions
  • K'iche traditions
  • Baluch idea 5: Control the Overland Trade
  • Delhian idea 6: Protect the Grand Trunk Road
  • French ducal idea 1: Men of Trade
  • Frisian idea 7: Brothers in Arms
  • German idea 2: Frühlings− und Herbstmesse
  • Granada idea 4: Strait of Gibraltar
  • Gujarati Princedom idea 2: Establish New Trading Ports
  • Isshiki idea 1: Shugo of Tango
  • Hejazi idea 2: Red Sea Trade
  • Pacific Northwest idea 4: Potlatch Feast
  • Shan idea 4: Control of the Gem Trade
  • Siberian idea 2: Siberian Fur Trade
  • Sistani idea 5: Overland Trade Routes
  • Telugu idea 7: Encourage Coromandel Trade
  • Butuan ambition
  • Shoni ambition
  • Sinhalese ambition
  • Yarkandi ambition

Foreign trade power modifier

  • Trade nodes that are not domestic are considered foreign and will suffer from over-extension penalties. Trade power abroad refers to trade power in these nodes.
  • Trade power abroad receives following bonuses:
Trade power abroad.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Aristocratic-Trade: Trade Connections Policy
  • Dalmatian idea 2: The Dalmatian Principalities
  • Hadramhi traditions
  • Hanoverian traditions
  • Hormuz traditions
  • Ragusan traditions
  • Couronian idea 3: Duchy of Mercantilism
  • Genoese idea 3: Rebuilding Genoese Trade
  • Hosokawa idea 3: Sakai City
  • Ionian idea 6: Entrepôt of the Eastern Mediterranean
  • -1% equal to overextension, this modifier is uncapped (at least to 300%).

Trade steering

Trade steering is applied as a multiplicative bonus to trade power used for steering when determining which outgoing node trade is steered to.

  • Trade steering is increased by certain ideas and policies.
Trade steering.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Omani idea 1: Local Merchant Preference
  • Mamluk traditions
  • Trade idea 6: Trade Manipulation
  • Navarran idea 5: Cross-Pyrenean Trade
  • Pomeranian idea 3: Northern Ports
  • Defensive-Trade: The Armed Neutrality Act
  • Kutai traditions
  • Ryukyuan traditions
  • So traditions
  • Aragonese idea 3: Mediterranean trade
  • East Frisian idea 7: The Emden Company
  • Huron idea 3: Birchbark Canoes
  • Mapuche idea 4: Mapuche Weaving
  • Pattani idea 2: South China Sea Trade
  • Pskovian idea 7: Pskov Before All Others
  • Saluzzo idea 5: The Key to the House of Italy
  • Shimazu idea 6: Okinawa Trade
  • Danziger ambition
  • Norwegian ambition
  • Orissan ambition
  • Transylvanian ambition
  • Trade-Expansion: Encouragement of Merchant Navy
  • Somali traditions
  • Arabian idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Canadian idea 6: Legacy of the Empire
  • Luxembourg idea 3: The Moselle Trade
  • Ouchi idea 5: Mercantile Diplomacy
  • Breton traditions
  • Clanricarde traditions
  • Traditions of The Hansa
  • Krakowian traditions
  • Malayan sultanate traditions
  • Medri Bahri traditions
  • Croatian idea 2: Pearl of the Adriatic
  • Granada idea 4: Strait of Gibraltar
  • Javan idea 4: Pan-Asia Trade
  • Silesian idea 4: Raubritter
  • Sulawesi idea 1: Intra-Asian Trade Network
  • National idea 6: Mercantile Status

Each point of naval tradition also increases trade steering efficiency by 1%.

Caravan power

Note: The values are displayed under country modifiers of the government interface even without Wealth of Nations DLC, but without effect in the trade nodes.

A nation steering from, towards or collecting (only in main trading port) an inland trade node receives bonus trade power. Caravan power is total development/3 and maxed at 50.

Merchant republics gain +33% bonus to Caravan power.

  • Caravan power is increased by certain ideas and policies. Can exceed 50 with these bonus.
Caravan power.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Naval-Influence: The Cooperation Act
  • Plutocratic idea 6: Free Cities
  • Trade idea 7: Fast Negotiations
  • Air traditions
  • Baden traditions
  • Dhundhari traditions
  • Lorraine traditions
  • Maravi traditions
  • Sadiyan traditions
  • Berber idea 3: Trans−Saharan Trade
  • Caspian idea 4: Protect the Caspian Trade
  • Dali idea 2: The Tea-Horse Route
  • Hausan idea 4: Sarakunan Kasuwa
  • Khivan idea 3: Oasis of Merv
  • Moroccan idea 3: Trans-Saharan Trade
  • Nizhny Novgorod idea 1: At The Confluence Of Giants
  • Odoyev idea 7: Strengthen the Oka River Trade
  • Persian idea 4: Improve the Silk Road
  • Shirvani idea 5: Caspian Trade
  • Songhai idea 7: Trans-Sahara Trade
  • Tumbuka idea 5: Inter-African Trade
  • Yarkandi idea 1: Northern Silk Road
  • Pskovian traditions
  • Kangra idea 5: Strengthen the Mountain Trade
  • Nubian idea 4: Encourage Long-Distance Trade
  • Offaly idea 1: The Gallowglasses


Embargoing is an option in the diplomacy screen that allows a country to leverage their trade power against another nation's, decreasing that nation's trade power in shared trade nodes. The trade screen shows icons for each nation embargoed and those embargoing your nation. Placing the mouse over each nation icon breaks down the penalties in each shared trade node.

Embargoing a country has the following effects:[7]

  • The defending country suffers a penalty to trade power in all trade nodes that both countries have power in. The base magnitude of the penalty is half of the attacker's trade power share in the trade node before the embargo. This penalty stacks multiplicatively with other modifiers.
  • The defending country's opinion of the attacking country is modified by -15. The defender also gains a Trade Dispute casus belli against the attacker unless the embargo is mutual.
  • The attacking country's trade efficiency suffers a -5% penalty unless the defender is a rival.
  • Embargoes do not count against the Diplomatic Relation limit.
  • The attacking country gains up to +10 Power projection.png power projection if the target is a rival, the amount depending on how severely the embargo affects the target's trade.

Embargo Efficiency can be increased by the following:

Embargo efficiency.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Espionage idea 6: Privateers
  • Vermont idea 2: The Boston Tea Party
  • Betsimisaraka idea 2: Pirate Ports
  • Cebu idea 5: 'The Place for Trading'
  • Cypriot idea 7: Raid Turkish Commerce
  • Malagasy idea 3: Pirate Ports
  • Mindanao idea 7: Pirates of Mindanao
  • Montenegrin idea 4: Balkan Gusars
  • Naxian idea 3: Archipelago Of Opportunities
  • Pomeranian idea 1: Legacy of Pirates


Merchants are envoys used to alter the default trade route behavior by collecting or steering trade. Merchants must be stationed at a trade node to do their work and can only travel a distance defined by a country's trade range, which increases with diplomatic technology, idea groups, and national ideas.

Note that employing merchants is not obligatory for trade system to function. Every nation will automatically collect from its home node, and send trade towards it if possible. Merchants are normally used for:

  • collecting in nodes other than home node,
  • trade steering, that is, controlling by which way outgoing trade value is transferred downstream,
  • as a prerequisite for sending light ships to protect trade in nodes where nation has no initial trade power.

Gaining merchants

Every country has a base of Merchants.png 2 merchants. Permanent means of acquiring more include:

Merchants.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • American traditions
  • Asturian traditions
  • Bengali traditions
  • Bulgarian traditions
  • Catalan traditions
  • Epirote traditions
  • Gujarati Princedom traditions
  • Hormuz traditions
  • Pegu traditions
  • Pskovian traditions
  • West Indies traditions
  • Expansion idea 2: Additional Merchants
  • Plutocratic idea 4: Free Merchants
  • Trade idea 2: Free Trade
  • Trade idea 5: Overseas Merchants
  • Ando idea 4: Trade Expansion
  • Arakanese idea 3: Bay of Bengal Trade
  • Butuan idea 3: Butuan Trade Connections
  • Canadian idea 2: The Hudson Bay Company
  • Candarid idea 1: Genoese Connections
  • Cascadian idea 6: The Hudson Bay Company
  • Caspian idea 7: Promote Foreign Trade
  • Dithmarscher idea 3: Trade Missions
  • Dortmund idea 5: Dortmund Moneylending Families
  • Dutch idea 2: Dutch Trading Spirit
  • Estonian idea 5: Baltic Trade
  • Gujarat Sultanate idea 7: Gujarati Diaspora Descends on Africa
  • Gutnish idea 5: Gutnish Merchant Adventurers
  • Hanseatic idea 2: Strong League Obligations
  • Holstein idea 4: Kieler Umschlag
  • Huron idea 1: Great Lakes Trade
  • Javan idea 4: Pan-Asia Trade
  • Kievan idea 6: Support Local Traders
  • Malabari idea 4: Trade Factors
  • Malayan sultanate idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Malian idea 6: Seek New Markets for Salt
  • Mogadishan idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Moluccan idea 3: Agents of Trade
  • Nepalese Princedom idea 2: Invite Kashmiri Traders
  • Novgorod idea 4: Control of the Hanseatic Kontor
  • Omani idea 7: Expansion of Trade Contacts
  • Ouchi idea 4: The Merchants of Hakata City
  • Pattani idea 5: Entrepôt
  • Pomeranian idea 2: Pomeranian Merchants
  • Portuguese idea 5: Encourage the Bandeirantes
  • Sami idea 3: Regulate Trade with the Southerners
  • Shirvani idea 7: Merchants of Baku
  • Shoni idea 4: Nagasaki City
  • Sinhalese idea 3: Pearl of the Indian Ocean
  • South Indian idea 7: Merchant Capitalists
  • Sumatran idea 5: Merchants of The Indian Ocean
  • Tumbuka idea 7: Welcome Swahili Merchants
  • Yemeni idea 6: Promoting the Yemeni Trade Ports
  • Full Trade Focus
  • Ashanti ambition
  • Clanricarde ambition
  • Galician ambition
  • Gond ambition
  • Interlacustrine ambition
  • Ionian ambition
  • Odoyev ambition
  • Aristocratic-Trade: Trade Connections Policy
  • Defensive-Trade: The Armed Neutrality Act
  • Plutocratic-Trade: Trade Kontor Network
  • Merchant republics have Merchants.png+1 merchant.
  • Some events can give a national modifier that temporarily provides Merchants.png+1 merchant.
  • The East India Trade Company decision gives Merchants.png+1 merchant. This requires being a country with the western technology group and diplomatic technology at level 10, at least two ports, and one province in the East Asian Trade Ports region owned.
  • Countries that control one of a number of trade nodes have the Confirm Thalassocracy decision (requires all maritime ideas and control of several specific trade nodes), which gives Merchants.png+1 merchant.
  • Western nations get Merchants.png+1 merchant for each trade company they control with the majority of the provincial trade power in a region.
  • Countries receive Merchants.png+1 merchant for each colonial nation with at least 10 provinces.
  • The Tengri Tengri religion with syncretic faith Zoroastrianism.png Zoroastrian provides Merchants.png+1 merchant.

Trade range

Merchants can only reach nodes at this distance from a cored province (or a cored province of a subject nation or a nation granting Naval Basing Rights). The distance is measured to the central province of the node, visible on the trade map mode. Base trade range is increased by Diplomatic technology (100 at tech 1 and 400 at tech 32) and some decisions and ideas.

  • Trade Range is increased by certain ideas and policies.
Trade range.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Ryukyuan idea 4: Maritime Commercialism
  • Swahili traditions
  • Trade idea 3: Merchant Adventures
  • Ayutthayan idea 5: Promotion of Trading links
  • Gujarati Princedom idea 7: Extend Trade Routes to Africa
  • Gujarat Sultanate idea 2: Jain Connections
  • Kono idea 6: Trade With Continental Asia
  • Malabari idea 1: Merchants of Southern India
  • Mesoamerican idea 7: Obsidian and Jade
  • Mogadishan idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Pacific Northwest idea 2: Dugout Canoes
  • South Indian idea 1: Merchants of Southern India
  • Traditions of The Hansa
  • Sumatran traditions
  • Evenk idea 2: Reindeer Herding
  • Dutch idea 2: Dutch Trading Spirit
  • Mamluk idea 1: Red Sea Trade
  • West Indies idea 4: The American Trade Hub

Merchant actions

Merchants can be sent to a trade node to perform one of two missions (as denoted in game interface):

  • Collect from trade sets merchant to convert trade value into trade income.
The merchant sent to collect from trade node grants a +10% bonus to trade income. Note that nations will automatically collect from their home nodes even if they do not have a merchant present. Collecting trade income from a non-home node halves the country's trade power in that node. (The tooltip shows additive penalty to display -50% penalty applied multiplicatively after all bonuses. For example, if a nation has a +40% trade power modifier before the collecting penalty, the listed penalty will be -50%*140%, that is, -70%.)
  • Transfer trade power sets merchant to steer trade value (the info in tooltip is incorrect[8]).
This allows nations to influence the steering of outgoing trade along a particular outgoing link. Each merchant applies a boost to the trade value on that link. Note that only merchants can steer trade - countries without merchants in a trade node can send trade forward, but cannot influence which link the trade travels on. When multiple downstream nodes are available, the destination for steered trade may be selected in the Trade mapmode. Every steering merchant grants a nation +10% bonus to trade power in home node (capped at +100% for 10 merchants) but that applies only if no merchant is collecting in a non-home node.

Trade income and trade efficiency

Trade income

Trade income a nation collects in a trade node is calculated as follows:

Trade income gets bonuses from merchant present and trade efficiency but can also be increased by certain ideas and policies.

National trade income modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
The modifier “national trade income modifier” was removed with patch 1.13.

Trade efficiency

Trade efficiency is added as a bonus modifier to trade income. Base trade efficiency is defined by diplomatic technology but it can also be increased by certain ideas and policies (capped at +200%).

Trade efficiency.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Trade-Administrative: Importation Act
  • Trade-Quality: Cloth Quality Edict
  • Dalmatian traditions
  • Portuguese traditions
  • Tuscan idea 5: Porto Franco
  • Dutch ambition
  • Ando traditions
  • Aragonese traditions
  • Beloozero traditions
  • Butuan traditions
  • Canadian traditions
  • Danziger traditions
  • Genoese traditions
  • Irish traditions
  • Italian traditions
  • Kongo traditions
  • Krakowian traditions
  • Neapolitan traditions
  • Nuremberger traditions
  • Ragusan traditions
  • Shoni traditions
  • Sinhalese traditions
  • So traditions
  • Venetian traditions
  • Württemberger traditions
  • Yarkandi traditions
  • Trade idea 4: National Trade Policy
  • Air idea 1: Taghlamt
  • Al-Haasa idea 5: Entrepot of India
  • Anatolian idea 5: Caravanserais
  • Arakanese idea 7: Arakanese Trade Contracts
  • Bahmani idea 4: Karimis
  • Barbary Corsair idea 1: The Barbary Slave Trade
  • Bengal Sultanate idea 1: Combat Coastal Piracy
  • Bengali idea 2: Ganges-Brahmaputra Confluence
  • Beninese idea 7: Regulation of Trade
  • Berber idea 3: Trans−Saharan Trade
  • Bremish idea 4: Free Imperial City of Bremen
  • Burgundian idea 5: Integrate the Towns in the Estates General
  • Butua idea 7: Vashambadzi
  • Carib idea 1: River Trade
  • Cham idea 6: Agarwood
  • Chickasaw idea 5: Slave Raids
  • Circassian idea 3: Circassian Grain Trade
  • Clanricarde idea 1: The Fourteen Tribes
  • East Frisian idea 6: Autonomous Burghers
  • English idea 4: The Navigation Acts
  • Franconian idea 2: Trading on the Main
  • Gelre idea 2: Hanseatic Towns
  • Great Ming idea 5: Restore the Salt Monopoly
  • Greek idea 5: Control the Mediterranean Trade
  • Gujarat Sultanate idea 6: Foreign Merchants set up Factories
  • Hadramhi idea 4: Encouraging the Incense Trade
  • Hormuz idea 1: A Vast Emporium
  • Imagawa idea 2: Control of Tokaido
  • Imperial German idea 4: The New Hanseatic League
  • Ionian idea 4: Gate to the Adriatic
  • Javan idea 7: Terracotta Banking System
  • Kaffan idea 7: Trade Reform
  • Kazani idea 7: End Western Domination
  • Khivan idea 5: Amu Darya
  • Khmer idea 4: River Trade
  • Khorasani idea 7: Protect the Caravan Routes
  • Kongolese idea 7: The Ivory Trade
  • Kutai idea 1: Earliest Indic State
  • Ladakh idea 7: Invite Far-Away Traders
  • Laotian idea 6: Southern Silk Road
  • Lotharingian idea 3: Wealth of the Low Countries
  • Malagasy idea 6: Control of the Foreign Traders
  • Malian idea 7: West African Slave Trade
  • Malvi idea 3: Protect the Delhi-Surat Trade Route
  • Mamluk idea 7: Monopoly Ports
  • Medri Bahri idea 1: Kings of the Sea
  • Mogadishan idea 5: Mogadishan Currency
  • Moldavian idea 7: Moldavian Trade
  • Moluccan idea 1: The Spice Islands
  • Moroccan idea 3: Trans-Saharan Trade
  • Mutapan idea 6: Curva
  • Nizhny Novgorod idea 6: Open Up The River Trade
  • Omani idea 4: Port Security Improvements
  • Orissan idea 6: Encourage the Salt Trade
  • Ottoman idea 6: Tulip Period
  • Pegu idea 1: Riches of Pegu
  • Permian idea 4: Great Perm
  • Polotskian idea 5: Trade Hub
  • Pomeranian idea 6: Dominate the Baltic
  • Pueblo idea 4: Cotton Weaving
  • Punjabi idea 2: Encourage Indo−Persian Trade
  • Rajput idea 7: Rajput Trading Houses
  • Rassid idea 7: Secure the Yemeni Trading Monopolies
  • Rigan idea 2: Hanseatic Port of Riga
  • Rostov idea 4: Entrepot of Russia
  • Ryukyuan idea 5: Sign Trade Agreements
  • Sadiyan idea 5: Dihang
  • Samtskhe idea 5: Protect the Trade Routes
  • Siddi idea 6: Konkan Trade
  • Silesian idea 5: Via Regia
  • Sligonian idea 1: Promote the Trade
  • Somali idea 5: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Sukhothai idea 3: Sawankalok Ware
  • Sumatran idea 1: Reliance on Trade
  • Swahili idea 1: Indian Ocean Trade
  • Tapuian idea 6: Open Trade Routes
  • Tarascan idea 3: Merchant-Officials
  • Theodorian idea 4: Port Avlita
  • Tirhuti idea 2: Gateway to India
  • Tverian idea 1: Tverian Merchants
  • Utrecht idea 4: The Vaartse Rijn
  • Venetian idea 3: Stato da Màr
  • Vindhyan idea 6: Diamond Mines
  • Yemeni idea 3: Control of the Red Sea
  • Andean ambition
  • Couronian ambition
  • Estonian ambition
  • Evenk ambition
  • Flemish ambition
  • Gujarati Princedom ambition
  • Gutnish ambition
  • Ambition of The Hansa
  • Kono ambition
  • Navarran ambition
  • Ouchi ambition
  • Pagarruyung ambition
  • Pattani ambition
  • Perugian ambition
  • South Indian ambition
  • Sulawesi ambition
  • Tumbuka ambition
  • Innovative-Trade: The Banking System
  • Offensive-Trade: Public Road Act
  • Trade-Economic: The Statute of Monopolies
  • Trade-Expansion: Encouragement of Merchant Navy
  • Huron traditions
  • Ulmer traditions
  • Bamberger idea 4: Little Venice
  • German idea 2: Frühlings- und Herbstmesse
  • Lüneburger idea 3: Staple Rights
  • Mesoamerican idea 7: Obsidian and Jade
  • Pisan idea 6: Maritime's legacy
  • Tunisian idea 6: Export Monopolies
  • West African idea 6: The Great River
  • 10% for a Constitutional Republic, Dutch Republic, or Free City form of government.
  • Through the nation designer Norse.png Norse religion provides a +10% trade efficiency if the ruler chooses Norse Deity Njord Njord as their deity.
  • The Reformed.png Reformed religion Monthly fervor increase.png Fervor power Trade provides +10% trade efficiency.
  • The Hinduism Hindu religion with Hindu Deity Surya Surya provides +10% trade efficiency.
  • The Tengri Tengri religion with syncretic faith Sunni Islam Sunni provides +10% trade efficiency.


Main article: Naval warfare#Privateering

Any fleet that contains light ships can be sent on a privateering mission to any trade node within trade range. The fleet will hoist the Jolly Roger and add the trade power of its light ships (plus a bonus) to a dummy "pirate" nation in the node, thus reducing the trade power share of everyone in the node - including their controller, though a portion of the trade value lost this way is returned to the controller, listed in accounts as "spoils of war". Unlike protecting trade, privateers can be sent to nodes a nation has no power in, making it a way of weakening the nation's enemies or gaining revenue from nodes it can't touch otherwise. Privateering a rival's trade generates power projection.

Hunt pirates

Main article: Naval warfare#Hunt pirates

This mission is available to fleets which contain at least one ship that isn't a transport. Fleets containing heavy ships or light ships may hunt pirates in any non-inland trade node; however, fleets containing only galleys (as well as fleets which are a mixture of galleys and transports) can only hunt pirates in nodes where all nearby sea provinces are inland seas.

Pirate-hunting fleets reduce the trade power taken by the dummy "pirates" nation in the chosen trade node by reducing their privateer efficiency. They do not actually damage or take damage from any ships.

See also