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Kingdom rankOttomans
Primary culture
Turkish (Levantine)

Capital province
Edirne (149)

Ottoman Government Government monarchy.png

State religion

Technology group
AnatolianAnatolian technology group
Ottoman ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
+5% Discipline
+3 Tolerance of heathens

Core-creation cost.png Kanunnames

−20% Core-creation cost
+1 Max promoted culture

Manpower recovery speed.png Ghazi

+20% Manpower recovery speed

Cavalry combat ability.png Timar System

+15% Cavalry combat ability

Cost of reducing war exhaustion.png Autonomous Pashas

−10% Cost of reducing war exhaustion

National tax modifier.png The Law code of Suleiman

+10% National tax modifier

Trade efficiency.png Tulip Period

+10% Trade efficiency

Ship costs.png Found the Imperial School of Naval Engineering

−10% Ship cost

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

+33% Land force limit modifier

Europa Universalis IV starts on November 11th 1444, the day after the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans victory over the Christian alliance at Varna. They begin owning most of Anatolia and the southern Balkans. For new players the early game will likely be focused on consolidating the country's position in those regions. Internally the country is divided between Orthodoxy Orthodox Christians and Sunni Islam Sunni Muslims. Economically they hold the majority of the Constantinople node trade power with very easy access to the rest.

In the Balkans, the important trade center of Constantinople and the region of Morea are held by the declining nation of Flag of Byzantium Byzantium. Its vassal Flag of Athens Athens, and Flag of Albania Albania hold Turkish lands. The Aegean Sea is controlled by Flag of Venice Venice, Flag of Naxos Naxos, Flag of Genoa Genoa, and Flag of The Knights The Knights, hindering control of the Constantinople trade node. In the Anatolia region, several Beyliks (Flag of Candar Candar, Flag of Dulkadir Dulkadir, Flag of Ramazan Ramazan and Flag of Karaman Karaman) control cored Ottoman territory. Further east, in the Taurus and Caucasus mountains, the hordes of Flag of Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu and Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu control some outlying Ottoman territory, and shield the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans from their historical rival the Flag of Timurids Timurids. To the south, historical and trade rival the Flag of Mamluks Mamluks control a sprawling trade empire that extends into Africa, while the Flag of Hedjaz Hedjaz control the holy cities of Medina and Mecca. To the west, the Balkan nations of Flag of Wallachia Wallachia, Flag of Serbia Serbia, and Flag of Bosnia Bosnia are ripe for the taking. Flag of Moldavia Moldavia is the only safe nation due to it being a march of Flag of Poland Poland which blocks expansion. Further expansion west is also halted by the Flag of Austria Austria and Flag of Hungary Hungary.

The Ottomans have a unique government named Ottoman Monarchy.This government is in many ways synonymous with the royal household.The harem ensures that there will never be a lack of heirs for the Ottoman Ruler.


Main article: Ottoman missions

Practically all of the Ottomans missions revolve around expanding their borders. In the early stages of the game, many of the missions revolve around reclaiming the lands of Anatolia, as well as the iconic mission to conquer the City of the World's Desire: Constantinople or Conquer the Crusader's Last Bastion (Rhodes). Further missions will request the Ottoman Empire to expand and conquer the regions of Balkans, North Africa, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, as well as individual provinces - all to increase trading power in the spice trade and to unite Sunni Islam lands against Christendom.


Main article: Ottoman events

Since the Ottoman Empire spanned over a huge area for many years, and experienced intense reforms and changes in governing an empire never seen before in history, it is no wonder that the Ottomans have many dynamic historical events. Many of those historical events are the aftermath from the expansion and government reforms of the Ottoman Empire - such events can revolve around the relationship between the Ottoman Empire and the trade states of Flag of Venice Venice and Flag of Genoa Genoa, the left-over Greek OrthodoxyOrthodox Patriarchate, enacting reforms that might not be popular with everyone, or suppressing nationalistic rebels. The dynamic historical events of the Ottomans show that an impressive empire requires impressive decisions be made.


Execute decision.pngAdopt the Devshirme System

By adopting the Devshirme System we have increased the efficiency of our recruitment process considerably.

Potential requirements
  • Ottomans have not enacted this decision before
  • Ruler's military skill is at least 4
  • Has at least 100 military power

  • LoseMilitary power.png-100 military power
  • Ottomans gain the modifier "Devshirme System" for the rest of the campaign:
    • National manpower modifier.png+10% National manpower modifier

Execute decision.pngAdopt the Provincial Government System

Appointing provincial governors, or 'Beys' can certainly improve administration of taxes and such but with less direct control over our provinces there is also the possibility of ambitious governors spending most of their time caught up in intrigues and internal feuds.

Potential requirements
  • Ottomans have not enacted this decision before
  • Administrative technology is at least 5
  • Ruler's administrative skill is at least 4
  • Has at least 50 administrative power

  • LoseAdministrative power.png-50 administrative power
  • Ottomans gain the modifier "Provincial Government System" for the rest of the campaign:
    • National tax modifier.png+10% National tax modifier
    • National unrest.png+1 National unrest

Execute decision.pngDisband the Janissaries

In 1622, the 17-year-old Sultan Osman II, decided to curb the Janissary excesses. The year before he had been defeated by the Poles during the 'Moldavian Magnate Wars', which he mainly blamed the cowardice of the Janissaries for. He was also outraged over being 'subject to his own slaves.' Rumors about the Sultan preparing to disband them soon reached the Janissaries who revolted and imprisoned Osman. Shortly after he was strangled to death.

Potential requirements
  • Has the country modifier "The Janissaries"
  • Has the disaster "Janissary Decadence"

  • Removes the country modifier "The Janissaries"
  • Ends the disaster "Janissary Decadence"

Execute decision.pngMake Constantinople Capital

The glorious city we have recently conquered will make a splendid capital for our nation. Constantinople is the greatest city on earth, and our government would make it so much stronger.

Potential requirements
  • Ottomans:
    • Own Constantinople (151)
    • Capital is not Constantinople
    • Have not enacted this decision before
  • Is not at war
  • Primary culture is Turkish
  • Follows the Sunni Islam Sunni religion
  • Ruler's administrative skill is at least 3
  • Controls the province Constantinople
  • Owns Edirne (149), Kocaeli (316), Hüdavendigar (317) and Burgas (1764)

  • Gain +1 stability
  • Constantinople:
    • Becomes core
    • Becomes capital
    • Changes culture to Turkish
    • Changes religion to Sunni
    • Changes province capital name to Kostantiniyye
  • If does not have the global flag Constantinople_restored
    • Constantinople:
      • GainsTax Base Icon.png+4 base tax
      • GainsProduction.png+4 production
      • GainsManpower.png+3 province base manpower
    • Sets the global flag constantinople_restored
  • Government rank of Ottomans becomes Empire


The early targets should be Flag of Albania Albania (before Flag of Venice Venice takes its core here), Flag of Byzantium Byzantium (taking Constantinople) and small Turkish beyliks in Anatolia (before Flag of Mamluks Mamluks or Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu conquer them). These steps do not require coring.

Flag of Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu owns 1 Ottoman core too and one Flag of Syria Syria province which can be released, easily diplomatically vassalized and later feed by Syrian cores from Mamluks (with significantly reduced aggressive expansion). Qara Qoyunlu owns one Ottoman and one Syrian core and should be taken as soon as possible (best if QQ is in some exhaustive war e.g. with Flag of Timurids Timurids or Mamluks).

Another early war targets are Flag of Trebizond Trebizond before Qara Qoyunlu will vassalize it (Ottomans has mission for it) and Flag of Theodoro Theodoro before Flag of Crimea Crimea or Flag of Genoa Genoa takes it.

After getting these possessions, the major Asian neighboring powers should be already crippled and do not represent a threat. Ottomans can then conquer Flag of Serbia Serbia, Flag of Bosnia Bosnia, Flag of The Knights The Knights, finish Southern Greece and vassalize Flag of Wallachia Wallachia (missions for all of them). There is an seductive mission for conquering Caffa but it is advised to pick it only after the Shadow kingdom event happens, otherwise the Emperor will protect Genoa.

A single successful war with Flag of Hungary Hungary ending by releasing Flag of Croatia Croatia, Flag of Transylvania Transylvania or Flag of Nitra Nitra may cripple this neighboring power and be a stepping stone to conquer Wien or Prague necessary for Western focus decision. However a strong European ally would be probably required for this war.

Another exhaustive war would be probably with Venice to take its and its vassals Balkan possessions - these are essential otherwise Venice will steal the trade income from Constantinople and Alexandria. Player should be careful and have bigger navy than Venice and its allies together.

Orthodoxy Convert to Orthodox

Ottomans can convert to Orthodox in several ways:

  • The quickest way occurs prior to annexing any territory by sending a missionary to an Orthodoxy province triggers enough unrest to create a possible rebellion. Ottomans are sufficiently Orthodox to be able to convert by accepting the rebels demands. However, if this is done the Ottomans lose out on the decision to make Constantinople the capital missing 11 development points. The upside is that Constantinople will not need to be converted.
  • A second way to convert and securing the extra 11 development from the make Constantinople the capital decision is by conquering Flag of Byzantium Byzantium and at least two of the four nations of Flag of Athens Athens and Flag of Albania Albania, Flag of Theodoro Theodoro, or Flag of Trebizond Trebizond. After Constantinople is secured and the decision clicked sending a missionary to any Orthodoxy province with unrest below 0 will create a rebellion that will allow accepting demands to convert to Orthodox. Religious rebels generated in the province of Trebizond have the advantage of being able to force convert Anatolia while completing sieges on provinces. A rebel generated in Edirne or Kirkkilise are the closest to Constantinople and can force convert that province - which otherwise can not be converted until a combination of Patriarch authority.png patriarch authority, an inquisitor and Religious ideas are taken.
  • both methods should be done prior to the annexation of the Anatolian Beyliks as the extra provinces will reduce the percentage of Orthodox.

Note, there are two handicaps to this as reduced Religious unity.pngreligious unity incurs a Corruption.png corruption penalty and initially Orthodox are unable to convert Sunni IslamSunni provinces.

If the Dhimmi estate have low loyalty, revoking the heathen provinces granted to them will spawn zealots of the province's religion. As soon as the game starts, Impose New Religious Tax interaction from the Estate tab can be taken, reducing Dhimmi loyalty to 35. Many Orthodox provinces start out as belonging to the Dhimmi estate, and can be revoked after a year has passed. The Zealots spawned will convert every non-Orthodox province they occupy to OrthodoxyOrthodox if the occupied province is not within a fort's Zone of Control, including Konstantiniyye after Make Constantinople the Capital decision has been taken, if the fort in Edirne is destroyed.. Zealots will not be able to cross the strait to Anatolia as there are almost always AI ships in the Sea of Marmara. They instead will march all the way around the Black Sea until they are defeated in battle by a nation along the way, or arrive back into Ottoman lands. The player can annex Flag of Trebizond Trebizond and send a missionary to the province (as outlined above) after granting it to the Dhimmi Estate, then revoke the estate ownership after a year if they wish to force convert Sunni IslamSunni Anatolia prior to switching to Orthodox

Catholicism Convert to Catholic

  • Conversion to Catholic is possible as the Ottomans. This can be done in an many ways however, the easier ways include securing either a Catholicism province from Flag of Bosnia Bosnia, Flag of Ragusa Ragusa or waiting for Flag of Athens Athens to convert its province and then securing it. However, as the amount of Catholic is small relative to the empire it will take a several years of waiting as a rebel stack forcibly converts provinces.

Note, there are two handicaps to this as reduced Religious unity.pngreligious unity incurs a Corruption.png corruption penalty and initially Catholics are unable to convert Sunni IslamSunni provinces.


Main article: Technology

The Ottomans begin the game in 1444 in the Anatolian technology group Anatolian technology group at level 3 for Administration, Diplomacy and Military with Feudalism embraced. This is the same starting technology level as Western nations. Overview:

  • 0% penalty to technology cost until renaissance appears.
  • Cavalry.png50% Ratio. Cavalry numbers may be up to 50% of a total army size, excluding Artillery.png artillery, before the Insufficient Support penalty is incurred. Same as Western, less than Eastern technology group60%Cavalry.png Eastern or Muslim technology group80%Cavalry.png Muslim.
  • Anatolian technology group Anatolian units: see Lands units § Anatolian. Early game Anatolian technology group Anatolian units (up to military tech 15) are superior to Western by 1 pip. Notably, Janissaries (infantry at military tech 9) have 1 offensive fire pip; the only other tech groups to get fire pips this early are Indian technology groupIndian and Chinese technology groupChinese. Conversely, Anatolian cavalry has no fire pips until tech 18, compared to 10 for Western.

Goals After Early Moves

As of 1.16 the Muslim Ottomans future goals revolve around 2 decisions: Western Focus and Unify Islam.

Western Focus

As of 1.18 western focus has been replaced with institutions Western focus enables the Ottomans to switch from Anatolian technology group+25%Technology cost.png Anatolian technology to Western technology group0% Western technology. This is accomplished by holding either Flag of Bohemia Bohemia core Prague or Flag of Austria Austria core Wien while Years of separatism.png<1 separatism.

In general there are three ways to tackling this decision with varying degrees of speed and risk. On the whole the Ottomans will need to be fastidious regarding Aggressive expansion impact.png aggressive expansion and Coalition.png coalitions. The routes follow through Flag of Venice Venice, Flag of Hungary Hungary or Flag of Poland Poland. There are also some relatively uncommon options that require being dragged into war with Flag of Austria Austria and releasing various nations.

Venetian Route to Wien

The Venetian Route could be characterized as the fastest and riskiest of all the routes as it relies on building a beachhead into the Flag of Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire and Flag of Austria Austria with no connecting provinces. The goal would be to build a path to Wien through the core of Flag of Venice Venice, Istria, and the cores of Flag of Austria Austria, Krain and Graz. Make sure to keep an eye on the aggressive expansion and the allies Venice might make, England and France.

Hungarian Route to Wien

The Hungarian route is a possibility if Flag of Poland Poland is available as an ally and, can be very appealing if Poland has a Personal Union over Flag of Lithuania Lithuania. However, the player will also fight the same amount of enemies as the Venice route. Furthermore, the player might run into a Hungary/Austria or an Aragon/Castile alliance.

Polish Route to Prague

This should only be done if Poland is down on its knees and doesn't have a Personal Union over Lithuania. The route is through Flag of Moldavia Moldavia cores Basarabia and Moldavia, Flag of Poland Poland cores of Halicz, Przemsyl, Nowy Sacz, Flag of Silesia Silesia cores of Ratibor and Breslau and the final core through Flag of Bohemia Bohemia Hradecko.

Post Decision Goals

If the Ottomans have completed the 3 listed decisions they are likely the physically largest and most developed nation on 3 continents. At this stage the question becomes how big can the Ottomans grow. Rivals may include Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth, Flag of Russia Russia, Flag of Great Britain Great Britain, Flag of France France, Flag of Ming Ming and Flag of Spain Spain.

Suggested Early Ideas

The needs of the Ottomans are fairly diverse and can be approached in a number of ways. The Western Focus achievement can be aided by the judicious use of Offensive for the military bonuses and Influence with Aggressive expansion impact.png aggressive expansion reduction can prevent aggressive expansion points and Coalition.png coalition formation or Diplomatic can be taken to more effectively reduce aggressive expansion by reducing the province war score cost Province war score cost.png-20%.

Administrative may be recommended as the combination of Core-creation cost.png-25% core reduction cost and Millets Core-creation cost.png-33%.

If the Ottomans choose to go Orthodoxy Orthodox or Catholicism Catholic Religious ideas may be a good choice as Deus Vult yields the Holy War casus belli making the acquisition of territories east or south of the Ottomans free from the use of diplomatic points. Administrative ideas may be required to defray the administrative point impact so much coring requires. The bonus missionary Missionaries.png+1, missionary strength Missionary strength.png+3 and Missionary strength vs heretics.png+2 will be of great help in maintaining Ottomans Religious unity.png religious unity.


Definitely the Sultan of Rum icon
Own and have cores on Rome, Moscow and Istanbul as Ottomans.
Country guides

Central African technology group Central African.png Kuba.png KubaMutapa.png Mutapa
East African technology group East African.png Ethiopia.png EthiopiaMogadishu.png Mogadishu
Muslim technology group Muslim.png The Mamluks.png MamluksMorocco.png MoroccoTlemcen.png TlemcenTunis.png Tunis
West African technology group West African.png Air.png AirMali.png Mali

Eastern technology group Eastern.png Jerusalem.png Jerusalem
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Arabia.png Arabia Ardabil.png Ardabil Hisn Kayfa.png Hisn Kayfa Oman.png Oman
Indian technology group Indian.png Assam.png Assam Bahmanis.png Bahmanis Bengal.png Bengal Orissa.png Orissa
Chinese technology group Chinese.png Bali.png Bali Brunei.png Brunei Dai Viet.png Dai Viet Japan.png Japan Khmer.png Khmer Korea.png Korea Majapahit.png Majapahit Malaya.png Malaya Pagarruyung.png Pagarruyung Pasai.png Pasai Sunda.png Sunda
Nomadic technology group Nomadic.png Jianzhou.png Jianzhou Timurids.png Timurids Uzbek.png Uzbek

Western technology group Western.png United States.png United States
Mesoamerican technology group Mesoamerican.png Maya.png Maya
North American technology group North American.png Caddo.png Caddo Cherokee.png Cherokee Iroquois.png Iroquois

Andean technology group Andean.png Chachapoya.png Chachapoya Cusco.png Cusco Muisca.png Muisca
South American technology group South American.png Mapuche.png Mapuche