Government

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File:Government example.png
Government interface

Each country is ruled by a government of a specific type; the different systems of governance provide benefits and sometimes maluses as exemplified in the list at the last section of this article.

In EU4 there are many kinds of government a nation can have, ranging from constitutional republics, where the state is governed by elected officials, to absolute monarchies, where the monarch exercises unrestricted power over the government.

Government types can be organized into five major groups: Government monarchy.png Monarchies, Government republic.png Republics, Government theocracy.png Theocracies, Government steppe horde.png Steppe Hordes, and Government tribal.png Native or Government tribal.png Tribal.

The interface by itself displays many types of information, for instance: the current ruler and heir, the type of advisors a player has, the country's main and accepted cultures and the monthly production of monarch power.

There are additional concepts and mechanics that related to government: legitimacy (if a monarchy), republican tradition (if a republic), devotion (if a theocracy), and changing one's government as well as the implications of doing so.

Ruler & heir

Main article: Ruler

The ruler is the head of a country.

As the representative of a nation, there are several ways a ruler can influence the progress and development of a state, one of them being the fact that monarch points come primarily from the ruler.

The heir is, for monarchies and similar government types, the successor of the ruler.

The heir is vested with the future sovereignty of the state, and they are crucial in determining the future legitimacy of the monarchy. A strong claim results in a high legitimacy while a weak claim results in low legitimacy.

Monarch power

Main article: Monarch power

Monarch power is one of the most important mechanics in EU4. In a way, monarchical power represents the ability of a ruler in governing a country and influences the rate at which technological innovation and infrastructural investment takes place. Despite its name, republics and other similar government types also use this mechanic.

There are three types of monarch power: Administrative power.pngadministrative, Diplomatic power.pngdiplomatic, and Military power.pngmilitary.

Advisors

Main article: Advisors

An Advisor.pngadvisor is a knowledgeable person who is responsible for aiding and advising the leader of a nation.

There are three types of advisors, which align with the monarch's powers: Administrative power.pngadministrative, Diplomatic power.pngdiplomatic and Military power.pngmilitary.

Government types

There are various types of government in the game. Each type offers different advantages. They are listed below.

Change government type.png Switching government type

It is possible to peacefully change the type of government in power, though only within government types in the same group. For example, a feudal monarchy can become an absolute monarchy but not a theocracy or a constitutional republic. New government types become available as administrative technology is researched.

Changing government type costs 100Administrative power.pngadministrative power.

A country can be changed forcibly to another government group (e.g., a monarchy turning into a republic and vice versa) via a revolution (e.g., if rebels or peasants overrun the state) and/or, for republics, by lowering republican tradition to 0. Certain events and decisions can also change government type.

Government monarchy.png Monarchies

A monarchy is a form of government where power is held by a single individual, i.e., the monarch. Ruler reigns until death. Affected by Regency. Referred to as Kingdom for Christian religious group, Sultanate for Muslim religious group, Empire for empire rank nations, and by government type for everybody else.

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Despotic  2
  • National unrest.png -1 National unrest
  • Unjustified demands.png -10% Unjustified demands
  • Autonomy.png 0/0/-0.05 Monthly autonomy change (Duchy/Kingdom/Empire respectively)

Among the earliest government types known to man, the country is ruled by a single individual with undefined power.


  • Can switch to other monarchies freely.
  • Can be formed by a Republic by re-electing the same ruler while having Republican Tradition lower than 20.
Feudal  2

A governmental form where power is shared between the monarch and the nobles, where labor or military services are offered in exchange for land.

Administrative 12
  • Production efficiency.png +10% Production efficiency
  • National tax modifier.png +5% National tax modifier
  • Autonomy.png -0.05/-0.05/-0.10 Monthly autonomy change

A governmental form where the state is governed as a monarchy relying to a great extent on strict organization of political matters and bureaucracy.

Absolute 20
  • Discipline.png +5% Discipline
  • National unrest.png -1 National unrest
  • Autonomy.png -0.05/-0.10/-0.15 Monthly autonomy change

A governmental form where the monarch governs the country with absolute power, without having to abide by any laws or regulations.

Constitutional 22
  • Years of separatism.png -5 Years of separatism
  • Legitimacy.png +1 Yearly legitimacy
  • Autonomy.png -0.10/-0.15/-0.20 Monthly autonomy change
A governmental form where the monarch has to abide by a certain constitution.
  • With the Common Sense DLC:
  • Has access to parliament. Grant a certain number of your provinces seats in parliament, which then allows those seats to vote on issues. The country with the parliament can choose between a few randomly picked issues, securing enough votes by events or bribing for the issue to go through.
Enlightened Despotism 29
  • Max promoted cultures.png -10% Accepted culture threshold
  • National manpower modifier.png +10% National manpower modifier
  • Autonomy.png -0.10/-0.15/-0.20 Monthly autonomy change
In essence a political system where a nation is governed by an absolute ruler embracing the ideas of the Enlightenment.
Revolutionary Empire 31
  • Morale of armies.png +10% Morale of armies
  • National manpower modifier.png +25% National manpower modifier
  • Autonomy.png -0.25 Monthly autonomy change
The Revolutionary Empire is a slightly more conservative form of government with a single ruler ruling with reference a chamber of deputies. The government can mobilize a large amount of manpower and every soldier carries a marshal's baton in his backpack.
  • To get this government type, you need to bring your republican tradition to 0 with the Revolutionary Republic government type.
  • Fixed rank: Empire rank Empire

Unique monarchy types

Some countries have unique government types in an attempt to simulate historical special cases.

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Celestial Empire 0
  • Technology.png -10% Technology cost
  • Minimum province autonomy 50%.
  • Land force limit modifier.png -33% Land force limit modifier
  • Uses factions
  • No estates
The Celestial Empire proclaims its rulers to be sons of the heaven who are born to govern the country in divine right. (More info.)
  • Only available for the Flag of Ming Ming.
  • Fixed rank: Empire rank Empire
Daimyo 0
  • Morale of armies.png +10% Morale of armies
  • Infantry combat ability.png +10% Infantry combat ability
Daimyo were the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings. Subordinate only to the shogun, daimyo were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. (More info.)
  • Vassals of Flag of Japan Japan have this government type.
  • Can ally, form coalitions with, and start wars against other daimyo without sovereign intervention.
  • Has access to the special Sengoku casus belli, usable on other daimyo.
  • Fixed rank: Duchy rank Duchy
Elective Monarchy 0
  • Income from vassals.png +25% Income from vassals
  • National unrest.png -1 National unrest
  • Autonomy.png 0/-0.05/-0.10 Monthly autonomy change
In this type of Monarchy the heir will be selected by the Sejm. (More Info.)
  • Available by event for Flag of Poland Poland and the Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth.
  • Other countries can support Heirs of own dynasty in that realm, giving monarch power, prestige & legitimacy bonus if they win
  • The throne cannot be claimed, making it impossible to make them the junior partner of a personal union outside of events
Iqta 0
  • Income from vassals.png +33% Income from vassals
  • National tax modifier.png +5% National tax modifier
  • Autonomy.png 0/-0.05/-0.1 Monthly autonomy change
Although similar to the feudal fief system, the holders under the iqta tax farming system did not actually own their lands, and were not guaranteed that they would be inherited by the next generation. (More info.)
  • Used by a number of Muslim countries, notably Flag of Mamluks Mamluks.
  • Ruler reigns for life.
  • Can reform into Administrative Monarchy by decision: Administrative tech.png technology 12, 90 Legitimacy.png Legitimacy, 100 Administrative power.png ADM points. AI will not use this decision before westernization.
Shogunate 0
  • Diplomatic relations.png +4 Diplomatic relations
Shogun were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the emperor. It came to mean a system of government which was both feudal and a military dictatorship. (More info.)
  • Initially available to Flag of Japan Japan.
  • Vassals to the Shogunate can declare war against each other without sovereign intervention, even if they are not Daimyos.
  • Can reform to a Feudal Monarchy by decision.
  • Fixed rank: Kingdom rank Kingdom
English Monarchy 0
  • Legitimacy.png +0.5 Yearly legitimacy
  • National unrest.png -1 National unrest
  • Autonomy.png -0.05/-0.1/-0.15 Monthly autonomy change

  • With the Common Sense DLC:
  • Initially available to Flag of England England and Flag of Great Britain Great Britain if England forms it.
  • Has access to parliament. Grant a certain number of the country's provinces seats in parliament, which then allows those seats to vote on issues. The country with the parliament can choose between a few randomly picked issues, securing enough votes by events or bribing for the issue to go through.

Legitimacy.png Legitimacy

Legitimacy is a rating for how legitimate the ruling monarch is perceived to be by the general population. This property ranges between 0 and 100.

The effects of legitimacy scale linearly from the worst at 0 to the best at 100:

Variable 0% 50% 100%
National unrest.png National unrest +2.0 0 −2.0
Tolerance heretic.png Religious tolerance [1] −1.0 0 +1.0
Diplomatic reputation.png Diplomatic reputation −1.0 0 +1.0
Income from vassals.png Income from vassals −5.0% 0 +5.0%

[1] - Global effect, i.e. affects Tolerance own.pngown, Tolerance heretic.pngheretic and Tolerance heathen.pngheathen religious tolerance.

Legitimacy modifiers

There are two main ways for legitimacy to either increase or decrease, these are called active and passive modifiers.

Active modifiers

Active modifiers are those that are dependent on the players actions.

  • Royal marriages. These usually give a small, one-time decrease to legitimacy, particularly if the royal match comes from a less powerful realm. Legitimacy gain is then increased.
  • Events. Sometimes there appear events that can either increase or decrease legitimacy:
    • Diwani Script: +1 yearly legitimacy for rest of campaign. Requires a Sunni monarchy and a lvl 2 Artist advisor
  • Papal Influence. Catholics can spend 50 Papal Influence to increase legitimacy by +1.0 per year for 20 years.
  • Succession. Depending on the claim strength of the heir, legitimacy can either decrease, if weak, or increase, if strong, upon succession to the throne. Legitimacy upon succession will be the claim strength assigned to the heir; legitimacy of the previous ruler is not counted.
Passive modifiers

Passive modifiers are not dependent on player action, instead they rely on existing variables. The following shown examples are calculated yearly.

If Prestige.png−100 then Icon legitimacy monarchy.png−1.
If Prestige.png+100 then Icon legitimacy monarchy.png+1.
National ideas and policies
Legitimacy.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1.5 yearly
  • Holy Roman idea 1: The Imperial Throne
+1.0 yearly
  • Andean traditions
  • Imperial German traditions
  • Montferrat traditions
  • Norman traditions
  • Roman traditions
  • Tarascan traditions
  • Trebizondian traditions
  • Württemberger traditions
  • Afghan idea 6: Institutionalised Loya Jirga
  • Air idea 3: Legacy of Tin Hinan
  • Arakanese idea 1: Mrauk U Dynasty
  • Ardabili idea 7: Shahs of Iran
  • Asakura idea 5: Seventeen Clan Code
  • Ashanti idea 4: The Golden Stool
  • Ashikaga idea 2: Defenders of the Imperial Court
  • Athenian idea 1: Dominus Athenarum
  • Aztec idea 2: Sustaining the Gods
  • Baden idea 2: Legacy of the House of Zähringen
  • Bahmani idea 6: Bahmani Primogeniture
  • Baluch idea 3: Khan of the Baloch
  • Bavarian idea 1: Institute the Everlasting Succession
  • Beloozero idea 3: Strengthen Local Lineages
  • Beninese idea 1: Curb the Uzama
  • Berg idea 1: The Heirs of Lotharingia
  • Betsimisaraka idea 6: Royal Justice
  • Bohemian idea 2: Elective Monarchy
  • Bolognese idea 2: Bentivoglio Family
  • Bosnian idea 2: Per Aspera ad Astra
  • Brazilian idea 7: Seat of the Empire
  • Breton idea 1: Legacy of Breton Independence
  • Bulgarian idea 7: Third Rome
  • Caucasian idea 5: Highland Khans
  • Cebu idea 2: Chola Legacy
  • Chinese idea 6: Son of Heaven
  • Clevian idea 2: Cleves and Mark
  • Dahomey idea 1: Children of the Panther
  • Daimyo idea 3: Honor the Ancestors
  • Dai Viet idea 6: Thuan Thiên
  • Deccani Sultanate idea 1: Legacy of the Bahmani Sultanate
  • Delhian idea 7: The Throne of India
  • Franconian idea 1: The Duchy Restored
  • Garhwali idea 5: Source of the Ganges
  • Garjati idea 2: Ancient Mandalas
  • Gelre idea 3: Defiance of Foreign Rule
  • Golden Horde idea 1: Legacy of the Golden Horde
  • Gond idea 6: Ancient Roots
  • Great Qing idea 4: Bogda Khan
  • Gujarati Princedom idea 6: Ashapura Mata
  • Hatakeyama idea 6: Unify the Clan
  • Hindustani idea 4: The Peacock Throne
  • Hojo idea 1: Legacy of the Kamakura Shogunate
  • Holstein idea 7: Danish Protest Pigs
  • Hosokawa idea 1: Kanrei
  • Ilkhanid idea 1: Restored Ilkhanate
  • Jerusalem idea 1: Crown of Thorns
  • Kaffan idea 5: Strengthen Ties With the Ethiopian Church
  • Karamanid idea 7: True Heirs of the Seljuk Empire
  • Khorasani idea 4: Dynastic Chronicles
  • Kikuchi idea 3: Aso Shrine
  • Kuban idea 6: Ndop Statue
  • Kurdish idea 6: Legacy of the Kurdish Dynasties
  • Ladakh idea 6: A Kingdom United
  • Lan Na idea 1: Legacy of Mangrai
  • Liège idea 3: Religious Devotion
  • Luban idea 2: Royal Village Shrines
  • Lunda idea 2: Perpetual Kingship
  • Mainzian idea 4: Saint Hildegard of Bingen
  • Malagasy idea 2: Zafivolamena
  • Manchu idea 4: The Later Jin
  • Manipur idea 3: Kingdom of the Meitei
  • Mazovian idea 6: Sejmy i Sejmiki
  • Mesoamerican idea 5: Ritual Bloodletting
  • Moldavian idea 4: Hospodar of Moldavia
  • Moluccan idea 2: Shared Cultural Heritage
  • Montenegrin idea 1: Legacy Of Diocleia
  • Mossi idea 1: Rialé and Yennenga
  • Muiscan idea 7: Consuetudinary Law
  • Mushasha idea 5: A House United
  • Mutapan idea 4: Spokesman before the Dead
  • Mysorean idea 2: Patronize Kannada Literature
  • Neapolitan idea 7: The Lazzaroni and the Monarchy
  • Northumbrian idea 1: Secure Percy Rule
  • Odoyev idea 1: Heirs of Chernigov
  • Offaly idea 6: A Family Affair
  • Oirat idea 3: The Four Oirats
  • Orissan idea 2: Servitor of Jagganath
  • Pagarruyung idea 3: Istano Basa
  • Pegu idea 6: Buddhist Kingship
  • Polotskian idea 2: Heritage of The Rus
  • Provençal idea 2: Revive House of Anjou
  • Rajputana idea 7: Monumental Architecture
  • Rassid idea 4: A Unified Rassid State
  • Romanian idea 4: Latin Island
  • Rûmi idea 3: Shahanshah
  • Samtskhe idea 1: Atabegs of Samtskhe
  • Savoyard idea 7: Savoyard Legitimacy
  • Scottish idea 6: Basilikon Doron
  • Semien idea 5: Gideon Dynasty
  • Shan idea 6: Shan Chronicles
  • Shirvani idea 1: The Khalwati Order
  • Sindhi idea 1: Enduring Samma Dynasty
  • Sistani idea 6: Chronicles of Sistan
  • South Indian idea 5: Patronage of Great Temples
  • Sukhothai idea 6: Ramkhamhaeng Stele
  • Swedish idea 1: Kung och Riksdag
  • Telugu idea 5: Legend of Prataparudra
  • Thüringian idea 1: The Partition of Leipzig
  • Timurid idea 4: Chagatai Literature
  • Transoxianian idea 7: Chagatai Literature
  • Tripuran idea 1: Rajmala
  • Tsutsui idea 5: The Southern Capital
  • Tumbuka idea 3: Healthy Priest Kings
  • Tyrone idea 2: The O’Neill Mór
  • Vindhyan idea 7: Candella Legacy
  • Wallachian idea 6: Boyar Regime
  • Welsh idea 4: Unbennaeth Prydain
  • Yi idea 6: Renovate the Skyward Tombs
  • Zambezi idea 5: Centralizing the Mbona Cult
  • Anhalt ambition
  • Barbary Corsair ambition
  • Canadian ambition
  • Ethiopian ambition
  • Imagawa ambition
  • Irish ambition
  • Italian ambition
  • Kanem Bornuan ambition
  • K'iche ambition
  • Maravi ambition
  • Ormond ambition
  • Russian ambition
  • Administrative-Aristocratic: The Licensing of the Press Act
  • Diplomatic-Plutocratic: Mandatory Service
+0.5 yearly
  • Bamberger traditions
  • Colognian idea 4: Prime Minister of Cologne
  • Cypriot idea 1: King of Jerusalem
  • Georgian idea 1: Bagrationi Dynasty
  • Great Shun idea 7: Claim to the Mandate
  • Jurchen idea 2: The Queue
  • Ruthenian idea 1: The Mother of Russian States

Government republic.png Republics

A republic is a form of government where power is, in contrast to a monarchy, held by a group of people. Republics have republican tradition instead of legitimacy. In some republics the ruler rules for life, but in others there is an election cycle. When the cycle ends, you get an event in which you can select the ruler:

  • Re-elect the current ruler. The country loses -2.5 Republican tradition.pngrepublican tradition per election cycle year, but the ruler gains 1 of each skill. This is to represent the fear that the ruler is becoming entrenched and despotic, more like a monarchy.
  • Administrative candidate (4/1/1)
  • Diplomatic candidate (1/4/1)
  • Military candidate (1/1/4)

If the ruler dies in office, a similar event occurs but without the possibility for re-election. Compared to a monarchy, one has much more control over who rules, and there is no stability loss when he/she dies (except if he is killed in combat and / or a lifetime dictator in Bureaucratic Despotism or Republican Dictatorship). However, a freshly elected ruler is usually not very good, and (except for noble republics) one can't make royal marriages. Republican leaders can be used as Military leaders like their monarch counterparts. If their leader is killed in action, the republic suffers -1 Icon stability.png stability.

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Merchant  0
  • Merchants.png +1 Merchant
  • Caravan power.png +33.0% Caravan Power
  • Autonomy.png 0/0/-0.05 Monthly autonomy change
  • Bonus goods production in non-owned provinces in a controlled trade node, equal to percentage of trade controlled (e.g., non-owned provinces produce 50% bonus goods if the republic control 50% of trade in the node).
  • AI is more reluctant to be diplo-vassalized by or as a merchant republic (-30 to the assessment).
A republic with a heavy reliance on trade and commerce.
  • Election cycle: 4 years.
  • Faction system with influence of each faction raised through electing their leader type, spending monarch power of the corresponding type, or through event choices.
    • Aristocrats (Military power.png): Trade power abroad.png-10% Trade power abroad, Morale of armies.png+5% Morale of armies, Land forcelimit.png+10% Land forcelimit modifier.
    • Traders (Diplomatic power.png): National tax modifier.png-5% National tax modifier, Trade power.png+10% Global trade power modifier, Naval maintenance modifier.png-10% Naval maintenance modifier.
    • Guilds (Administrative power.png): Construction cost.png-10% Build cost, National manpower modifier.png-10% National manpower modifier, Goods produced modifier.png+10% Goods produced modifier.

With the Res Publica.png Res Publica DLC:

  • Can construct a trade post for 50 Administrative power.png giving +10 Trade power.png trade power, in one owned province per trade node (except your primary node).
  • Can't switch governments normally (but can become a dictatorship through event with low republican tradition)
Oligarchic  2
  • National tax modifier.png +5% National tax modifier
  • Stability cost modifier.png -5% Stability cost modifier
  • Autonomy.png -0.00/-0.05/-0.10 Monthly autonomy change
A governmental form where a few patrician families hold the power and elect rulers amongst themselves.
  • Election cycle: 4 years.
Noble  7
  • Tolerance heretic.png +1 Tolerance of heretics
  • Morale of armies.png +10% Morale of armies
  • Autonomy.png 0/-0.05/-0.10 Monthly autonomy change
The country is governed by nobles, holding substantial rights and benefits.
  • Allows royal marriages.
  • Election cycle: 8 years.
Administrative 12
  • Years of separatism.png -5 Years of separatism
  • Production efficiency.png +10% Production efficiency
  • Autonomy.png -0.05/-0.10/-0.15 Monthly autonomy change
A republic that relies to a great extent on strict organization of political matters and bureaucracy.
  • Election cycle: 5 years.
Republican Dictatorship 20
  • Autonomy.png -0.05/-0.10/-0.15 Monthly autonomy change
  • Tolerance heathen.png +1 Tolerance of heathens
  • Morale of armies.png +10% Morale of armies
The elected representatives exercise absolute power over the state.
  • Ruler reigns for life.

With the Res Publica DLC:

  • Government form can trigger at low Republican Tradition.
  • On ruler death, changes to kingdom if Republican Tradition is below 50, otherwise it changes back to its previous republican government.
Constitutional 22
  • Production efficiency.png +10% Production efficiency
  • Trade efficiency.png +10% Trade efficiency
  • Autonomy.png -0.10/-0.15/-0.20 Monthly autonomy change
The state is governed by representatives elected by the people who have to follow a specified set of laws and regulations.
  • Election cycle: 4 years.

With the Common Sense DLC:

  • Has access to parliament. Grant a certain number of the player's provinces seats in parliament, which then allows those seats to vote on issues. The country with the parliament can choose between a few randomly picked issues, securing enough votes by events or bribing for the issue to go through.
Bureaucratic Despotism 29
  • Stability cost modifier.png -20% Stability cost modifier
  • Autonomy.png -0.15/-0.20/-0.25 Monthly autonomy change
The nation is controlled by state officials primarily concerned with procedural correctness.
  • Ruler reigns for life.
Revolutionary 31
  • Tolerance heretic.png +2 Tolerance of heretics
  • Morale of armies.png +10% Morale of armies
  • Autonomy.png -0.25 Monthly autonomy change
Revolutionary propaganda gives the armies defending the revolution strong morale and the principle that everyone is equal gives strong leadership.
  • The Revolutionary republic is available to any country that has its capital in Europe and if unique event rebels control the capital.
  • Election cycle: 4 years.
  • Fixed rank: Empire rank Empire

Unique republic types

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Ambrosian Republic 0
  • National tax modifier.png +10% National tax modifier
  • Morale of armies.png +5% Morale of armies
  • Autonomy.png 0/-0.05/-0.10 Monthly autonomy change
The city of Milan was thrown into confusion by the sudden death of the Duke without a respected adult heir. The plutocratic elite declared a republic and the claimants to the throne were driven out of the city. The new republic was called the 'Golden Ambrosian Republic', named after the 4th century Bishop of Milan. (More info.)
  • Election cycle: 4 years.
  • Only available for Flag of Milan Milan in 1447 or as the result of a special event.
Dutch Republic 0
  • Heavy ship combat ability.png +10% Heavy ship combat Ability
  • Trade efficiency.png +10% Trade efficiency
  • Autonomy.png -0.05/-0.10/-0.15 Monthly autonomy change
The republic was a confederation of seven provinces, which had their own governments and were very independent. (More info.)
  • Election cycle: 4 years or ruler reigns until death, see below..
  • Choose between an Orangist (military, monarchy-oriented) or a Statist (trade, republic-oriented) candidate.
Statists in power:[1] Orangists in power:[2]
elections happen every 4 years, no re-election rulers will rule until death
  • Allows royal marriages.
  • Only available for the Flag of Netherlands Netherlands, in 1581 or as the result of a special event. This event also allows to change the government type to the Administrative monarchy and the Administrative Republic
Free City 0
  • Trade efficiency.png +10% Trade efficiency
  • Development cost.png −10% Development cost
  • Election cycle: 4 years.
  • Only available for free cities in the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Loses free city status and becomes an Oligarchic Republic if a second province is acquired.
  • Fixed rank: Duchy rank Duchy

Culture icon.png Republican cultural sufferance

All non-tribal republics have a small bonus that helps mitigate the penalty to non-accepted culture provinces. It's not applied to cultures belonging to the same culture group. The bonus consists of:[3]

Local tax modifier.png +10% Local tax modifier
Local manpower modifier.png +10% Local manpower modifier
Local sailors modifier.png +5% Local sailors modifier
Local unrest.png −0.5 Local unrest

Below is an example of monarchy vs republic for provinces with non-accepted culture, republican values has the 'Cultural Sufferance' applied:

Accepted Republic Monarchy
Local unrest 0 +1.5 +2
Local tax modifier 0 -23% -33%
Local manpower modifier 0 -23% -33%

Republican tradition.png Republican tradition

Republican tradition is the republican counterpart of how legitimate the ruling power is perceived by the general population. It's also a way to show how "true" the government holds up to republican ideals (i.e. if a country elects a new ruler in every election). This property ranges between 0 and 100.

New republics will always start with 100 tradition and each year republican tradition increases by +1. Various events can make a player choose between sacrificing tradition or suffering another negative consequence. Like legitimacy, republican tradition has linearly-scaling effects based on its level:

Variable 0% 50% 100%
National unrest.png National unrest 0 −1.5 −3.0
Stability cost modifier.png Stability cost modifier +200% +100% 0

Republican government with low tradition can collapse into despotism, with noble rebel factions becoming increasingly likely below 66 and 33 tradition. Below 40, the ruler may declare himself the ruler of a republican dictatorship (or, for revolutionary republics, a revolutionary empire). This is more likely to happen with lower tradition, and also happens immediately if the ruler is re-elected with tradition below 20. When the ruler of a republican dictatorship dies with republican tradition below 50, it becomes a monarchy, of the most advanced type permitted by admin tech (except Constitutional Monarchy). Republican tradition does not normally increase during a dictatorship, but if it's above 50 when the ruler dies, the government reverts to whatever type it was before the dictatorship.

Yearly republican tradition provided by national ideas and policies

Republican tradition.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+0.50
  • Colonial idea 1: Founding Fathers
  • Cossack idea 2: Cossack Hetmanate
  • Barbary Corsair ambition
+0.30
  • Imperial German traditions
  • Aachen idea 2: Imperial Free City
  • Breton idea 1: Legacy of Breton Independence
  • Franconian idea 1: The Duchy Restored
  • Frankfurter idea 7: Freie Stadt Frankfurt
  • Hamburger idea 2: Burgher Republic
  • Luccan idea 7: The Jacobin State of Lucca
  • Novgorod idea 3: Ivan's Hundred
  • Offaly idea 6: A Family Affair
  • Perugian idea 4: Perugian Signoria
  • Pisan idea 5: Anziani del Popolo
  • Rothenburg idea 3: The End of the Line
  • Veronese idea 1: Three Households Alike in Dignity
  • American ambition
  • Canadian ambition
  • Dithmarscher ambition
  • Irish ambition
  • Italian ambition
+0.20
  • Plutocratic-Economic: Formalized Scales, Weights and Measures
+0.15
  • Kiwi idea 1: Maori Seats
+0.10
  • Administrative-Aristocratic: The Licensing of the Press Act

Government steppe horde.png Steppe nomads

Main article: Steppe hordes

Steppe nomads, normally referred to as khanate (as they have East-Asian or Altaic culture), is a loosely organized form of government where power is held mostly by the tribes, but united under the khan. It differs from monarchies in the way that each time a khan dies, all clan leaders are summoned to vote on the next khan; the khan has an heir, but if the khan dies and the heir is young enough to require a regency council, the heir is killed and replaced with another ruler.

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Steppe Nomads 0
  • National manpower modifier.png +25%/+50%/+75% National manpower modifier
  • Land forcelimit.png +25%/+50%/+75% Land force limit modifier
  • Looting speed.png +50% Looting speed
  • Minimum province autonomy 25%.
  • No cost for reinforcing armies
A governmental form where a sovereign or military ruler rules a tribal chiefdom, with constant Casus Bellis on all their neighbors and troops who fight better on the plains.
  • Turns into a despotic monarchy if the government is reformed.
  • Always have Casus Belli on neighbors (Tribal Feud against other nomads, Tribal Conquest against others).
  • +25% shock damage increase for nomads on plains-like home territory.
  • Must reform the government before westernizing. If in Islamic religion group, reform to Muslim Tech group. All others reform to Chinese tech group.

Horde unity Horde Unity

With The Cossacks expansion, Steppe Nomads have Horde Unity. There is no effect at 50; below and above this value the effects scale linearly.

Effects of Horde Unity

Level of Horde Unity Horde unity Effects
100
  • National unrest.png -2 Global Unrest
  • Discipline.png +5% Discipline
75
  • National unrest.png -1 Global Unrest
  • Discipline.png +2.5% Discipline
50
  • No Effect
25
  • National unrest.png +2 Global Unrest
  • Discipline.png -5% Discipline
0
  • National unrest.png +4 Global Unrest
  • Discipline.png -10% Discipline

Horde Unity is lost at a rate of -2 per year, plus -0.01 for every two points of Development.png development the Government steppe horde.png Horde owns. Horde unity Horde Unity is also lost if the Tribes Tribe Estate is unhappy (Estate loyalty Estate Loyalty between 0 and 29), with the amount dependent on their Influence idea group.png Estate Influence. The only way to gain Horde unity Horde Unity is through Looting speed.png Looting and Razing power gain Razing. Looting provinces provides +1 Horde unity Horde Unity for every four Gold Icon.png Ducats looted, while Razing provides +1 Horde Unity for every point of Development Development.png in the province being razed, regardless of the amount of development lost.

Without The Cossacks, Government steppe horde.png Hordes have Legitimacy.png Legitimacy just like Government monarchy.png Monarchies.

Government theocracy.png Theocracies

A TheocracyGovernment theocracy.png is a form of government Tab domestic government.png where power is held by the religious elite. Theocracies Government theocracy.png have heirs that are chosen by an event, with each choice having a different effects and unlocking certain events, that can happen once that heir becomes a monarch. With the Common Sense DLC, they lack both the Republican Tradition Republican tradition.png mechanic and the Legitimacy Legitimacy.png mechanic, and with the Common Sense DLC how have the Devotion Devotion.png mechanic.

Table of all the Theocracies

A table of all the Government theocracy.png Theocracies in the game:

Type of Government theocracy.png Theocratic Governments List of Countries
Theocracy

Flag of Ajuuraan Ajuuraan, Flag of Alsace Alsace, Flag of Aquileia Aquileia, Flag of Augsburg Augsburg, Flag of Avignon Avignon, Flag of Bhutan Bhutan, Flag of Ichma Ichma, Flag of Yarkand Yarkand, Flag of Cologne Cologne, Flag of Liege Liege, Flag of Magdeburg Magdeburg, Flag of Mainz Mainz, Flag of Montenegro Montenegro, Flag of Münster Münster, Flag of Mzab Mzab, Flag of Riga Riga, Flag of Salzburg Salzburg, Flag of Tibet Tibet, Flag of Trier Trier, Flag of Utrecht Utrecht, Flag of U-tsang U-tsang, Flag of Verden Verden and Flag of Wurzburg Wurzburg

Monastic Order

Flag of Livonian Order Livonian Order, Flag of Teutonic Order Teutonic Order and Flag of The Knights The Knights

Papacy

Flag of Papal States Papal States

Designated Heirs

With the exception of Papacies (such as the Flag of Papal States Papal States), heirless Theocracies Government theocracy.png get to designate an Heir from a list of candidates. These Heirs all have random monarch skills (Administrative power.png, Diplomatic power.png and Military power.png, instead the choice gives you different effects and events.

Type of Heir Effects
Local Noble
  • Nobility.png +5 Estate Loyalty
  • Devotion.png -5 Devotion
  • Prestige.png +10 Prestige
Foreign Noble
  • Government monarchy.png +50 Random Monarchy with no Regency of the same Religion Tolerance own.png gains opinion modifier Same Dynasty as Heir for 50 years increasing opinion with the Government theocracy.png
Merchant's Son
  • Clergy.png +5 Estate Loyalty (Warning, this is a bug, the Burghers Estate Burghers.png are the ones who should receive the loyalty, not the Clergy Estate Clergy.png)
  • Income.png 35% Years of Income in Ducats Gold Icon.png
  • Devotion.png -5 Devotion
Talented Theologian
  • Devotion.png +5 Devotion
  • Clergy.png +5 Estate Loyalty
Local Preacher Non Sunni Islam Sunni, Shiite Islam Shiite or Ibadi Islam Ibadi religion only
  • Devotion.png +10 Devotion
  • Prestige.png -5 Prestige
Papal Protege Catholicism Catholic religion only
  • Clergy.png +5 Estate Loyalty
  • Papal influence.png +10 Papal Influence
Local Imam Khatib Sunni Islam Sunni, Shiite Islam Shiite or Ibadi Islam Ibadi religion only
  • Clergy.png +5 Estate Loyalty
  • Prestige.png -10 Prestige

Devotion

Government theocracy.png Theocracies now have Devotion.png Devotion, which is similar to Legitimacy.png Legitimacy and Republican tradition.png Republican Tradition. Devotion goes up from high Icon stability.png Stability and pious acts and goes down from low Icon stability.png Stability and low Religious unity.png Religious Unity. Devotion affects your Papal influence.png Papal Influence, Church power.png Church Power, Prestige.png Prestige and National tax modifier.png National Tax Income. Devotion.png Devotion represents the zeal of the faith inside your country. The higher it is, the more efficient your Government theocracy.png Theocracy will run!

Effects of Devotion

Level of Devotion Devotion.png Effects
100
  • National tax modifier.png +25% National Tax Modifier
  • Prestige.png +1 Yearly Prestige
  • Papal influence.png +1 Papal Influence (for the Catholicism Catholic religion)
  • Church power.png +12.50% Church Power (for the Protestantism Protestant religion)
75
  • National tax modifier.png +12.50% National Tax Modifier
  • Prestige.png +0.50 Yearly Prestige
  • Papal influence.png +0.50 Papal Influence (for the Catholicism Catholic religion)
  • Church power.png +6.20% Church Power (for the Protestantism Protestant religion)
50
  • No Effect
25
  • National tax modifier.png -12.50% National Tax Modifier
  • Prestige.png -0.50 Yearly Prestige
  • Papal influence.png -0.50 Papal Influence (for the Catholicism Catholic religion)
  • Church power.png -6.20% Church Power (for the Protestantism Protestant religion)
0
  • National tax modifier.png -25% National Tax Modifier
  • Prestige.png -1 Yearly Prestige
  • Papal influence.png -1 Papal Influence (for the Catholicism Catholic religion)
  • Church power.png -12.50% Church Power (for the Protestantism Protestant religion)

Government tribal.png Native Council

Main article: Tribal nation

A native council is the government form of all native tribes in North America north of Mexico and in South America east of the Andes. All tribes with this government have access to unique buildings and mechanics that were added in the Conquest of Paradise patch.
In the Art of War patch, a new government type has been added for Siberian tribes that shares some similarities with their New World counterparts.

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Native Council 0
  • Stability cost modifier.png -33% Stability cost modifier
  • Land maintenance modifier.png -50% Land maintenance modifier
  • Diplomatic relations.png -1 Diplomatic relations
Native Council is a government where there is a leader but all members of society have influence in decisions

Government uses unique Native American and migration mechanics.

  • Fixed rank: Duchy rank Duchy
Siberian Clan Council 0
  • Stability cost modifier.png -33% Stability cost modifier
  • Technology cost.png +15% Technology cost
One or more clans headed by an elder with a council of other leaders to help him make decisions related to their respective areas.

Government uses migration mechanics.

  • Fixed rank: Duchy rank Duchy

Government tribal.png Tribal governments

A tribe is regarded as a society that hasn't developed a concrete definition of what a Westphalian nation-state is. Nomadic by nature, the power is held by either a chief or by a group of fellow tribesmen.

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Democracy 0
  • Stability cost modifier.png -15%/-33%/-33% Stability cost modifier
  • National unrest.png -1 National unrest
  • Diplomatic relations.png -2/-1/0 Diplomatic relations
A governmental form where all the members of the tribe are allowed to make their voice heard and influence how their tribe should be governed.
Despotism 0
  • Core-creation cost.png -5%/-10%/-15% Core creation cost
  • National unrest.png -1 National unrest
  • Diplomatic relations.png -2/-1/0 Diplomatic relations
A political system where a tribe is controlled by an individual ruler with unlimited power and the ability to exercise any action without consequence or retribution, often ruling through fear.
Federation 0
  • National manpower modifier.png +10%/+15%/+20% National manpower modifier
  • Land forcelimit.png +10% Land force limit modifier
  • Diplomatic relations.png -2/-1/0 Diplomatic relations
A governmental form where a confederation of tribes rule with a certain degree of internal autonomy but are nationally governed by a central authority.
Monarchy 0
  • Income from vassals.png +10%/+20%/+30% vassal income
  • Icon stability.png -10% Stability cost modifier
  • Diplomatic relations.png -2/-1/0 Diplomatic relations
A political system where a large tribal society has formed a kingdom, with one strong ruler who rules through law.

Colonial nations

A colonial nation is a special republican government that manages a New World colony.

Type Level Effects Description & notes
Colonial Government 0
  • Autonomy.png -0.10 Monthly autonomy change
  • Recover army morale speed.png +2% Land morale recovery
A provincial government set to handle the affairs of the New World colonies, led by a Governor or Viceroy.
  • Election cycle: 8 years.
  • Cannot change government type if the colonial nation is not independent.
  • Only available for automatically formed colonial nations in the game.
  • Fixed rank: Duchy rank Duchy

Government rank

Patch 1.12 introduced a new Government Rank system where every country is one of three ranks: Duchy rank Duchy, Kingdom rank Kingdom, or Empire rank Empire. A country's starting rank is based on historical position. Players with the Common Sense.png Common Sense expansion can improve their rank by reaching certain total development values or via decisions.

Rank Name Required development / prestige National Focus cooldown Diplomat.png Diplomats General.png Leaders without upkeep
1 Duchy Base 25 years +0 +0
2 Kingdom 300 / 50 20 years +1 +0
3 Empire 1000 / 75 15 years +1 +1

Empire bonuses replace Kingdom bonuses so net bonus of going from duchy to empire is +1 diplomat, not +2.

Additional benefits and mechanics

  • Government types that give a Autonomy.png local autonomy bonus will often have it scale depending on the country's rank. For example, an Administrative Monarchy gives Autonomy.png -0.05/-0.05/-0.10 monthly autonomy change depending on whether the country is currently a duchy/kingdom/empire.
  • Higher-tier countries get a -10 penalty per tier towards accepting diplomatic vassalization, increasing to -30 if the requesting country is of lower tier. Conversely, a country that is of lower rank than the proposer gets a bonus: a duchy towards a kingdom gets +10.
  • Tribal governments get improved modifiers and reduced penalties at higher tiers.
  • Holy Roman Empire states (including the emperor) are limited to duchy rank unless they are electors, in which case they may become kingdoms. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia is the only kingdom in the HRE in 1444.
  • All country formation decisions that change rank to Kingdom cause the country to leave the HRE unless it is an Elector or the Emperor. (This is the only way to become a kingdom as a non-Elector without leaving.)
  • Elector theocracies may become kingdom-tier by decision.
  • Vassals and marches are always duchies; they lose any higher rank upon being vassalized.
  • If the player has enabled the Common Sense expansion then the player can at Empire government level claim the title Cultural union.

Some formation decisions - Flag of Byzantium Byzantium, Flag of Germany Germany, Flag of Bharat Bharat, Flag of Hindustan Hindustan, Flag of Inca Inca, Flag of Mughals Mughals, Flag of Qing Qing, Flag of Russia Russia, and the united Flag of Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire - raise the government to empire tier. In addition, the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans can become an empire by decision once they take Constantinople, while Flag of Persia Persia has an event raising it to empire status if it is Shia and controls the Persian heartland. No HRE member can become an empire, though an non-HRE Empire-tier Emperor may still add themselves to the HRE (though they will become dukes upon doing so).

Some special government types have fixed government rank, regardless of their development and prestige. These include: revolutionary empire (empire), revolutionary republic (empire), monastic order (duchy), papacy (kingdom), native council (duchy), Siberian native council (duchy), free city (duchy), celestial empire (empire), daimyo (duchy) and shogunate (kingdom).

Footnotes

  1. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Statists in Power).
  2. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Orangists in Power).
  3. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Republican Cultural Sufferance).
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