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Revision as of 10:32, 2 November 2018 by (talk) (Horde Unity)
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For the pre-1.26 government system see a previous version of this page.
Government interface (Prussian Monarchy)

Each country is ruled by a Tab domestic government.png government of a specific type providing benefits and sometimes maluses. The different kinds of government forms ranges from constitutional republics, where the state is governed by elected officials, to despotic monarchies, where the monarch exercises undefined and often unrestricted power over its government.

The interface by itself displays many types of information, for instance: the current ruler and heir, the type of advisors a player has, the country's main and accepted cultures and the monthly production of monarch power. Some government also have access to unique mechanics and abilities.



Main article: Ruler

The ruler is the head of a country. As the representative of a nation, there are several ways a ruler can influence the progress and development of a state, one of them being the fact that monarch points come primarily from the ruler.

The heir is, for monarchies and similar government types, the successor of the ruler. The heir is vested with the future sovereignty of the state, and they are crucial in determining the future legitimacy of the monarchy. A strong claim results in a high legitimacy while a weak claim results in low legitimacy.

The consort is, for monarchies and similar government types the spouse of the current reigning ruler. The consort is tasked with the opportunity to take the place of the throne if the ruler dies and the current heir is not of age.


Main article: Advisors

An Advisor.pngadvisor is a knowledgeable person who is responsible for aiding and advising the leader of a nation.

There are three types of advisors, which align with the monarch's powers: Administrative power.pngadministrative, Diplomatic power.pngdiplomatic and Military power.pngmilitary.

Monarch power

Main article: Monarch power

Monarch power is one of the most important mechanics in EU4. In a way, monarchical power represents the ability of a ruler in governing a country and influences the rate at which technological innovation and infrastructural investment takes place. Despite its name, republics and other similar government types also use this mechanic.

There are three types of monarch power: Administrative power.pngadministrative, Diplomatic power.pngdiplomatic, and Military power.pngmilitary.

Government rank

Without Common Sense a nation becomes a cultural union automatically by reaching 1000 development and may not change its rank through the government interface, only through country formations, decisions, etc.

The government rank system divides countries one of three ranks: Duchy rank Duchy, Kingdom rank Kingdom, or Empire rank Empire. A country's starting rank is based on historical considerations, though players can improve their rank by reaching certain total development values or via decisions. Flag of Ming Ming, Flag of Byzantium Byzantium, Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia and the Flag of Timurids Timurids are the only empire-rank nations in 1444, while there are many kingdoms and duchies. Once the required development (and prestige), as listed in the table below, is reached, it is possible to upgrade the government rank in the government tab. The rank cannot be downgraded, even if one's development shrinks later in the game. However:

  • Certain government types have fixed government ranks and cannot change it manually or otherwise.
  • Holy Roman Empire states (including the emperor if a member) cannot rise above duchy rank unless they are electors, in which case they may become kingdoms but not empires. The HRE electors Flag of Bohemia Bohemia, Flag of Trier Trier, Flag of Cologne Cologne and Flag of Mainz Mainz are the only kingdoms in the HRE in 1444.
  • Vassals, Daimyo subjects, colonial nations and marches are always duchies; a country loses any higher rank upon being vassalized (unless the rank is locked by its government type) and won't be able to change its rank while subjected. Junior partners in a Personal Union and Tributary states can change rank freely.
  • No HRE member can become an empire, though an non-HRE Empire-tier Emperor may still add themselves to the HRE (though they will become dukes upon doing so).

Note: Rank bonuses (as listed in the table) replace each other; so the net bonus of going from duchy to empire is +1 diplomat, not +2.

Rank Name Required development Required prestige National Focus cooldown Diplomat.png Diplomats General.png Leaders without upkeep Number of states.png Number of states Maximum absolutism Maximum absolutism Autonomy.png Monthly autonomy reduction
1 Duchy Base Base 25 years +0 +0 +0 +0 -0
2 Kingdom 300 50 20 years +1 +0 +5 +0 −0.025
3 Empire 1000 75 15 years +1 +1 +10 +5 −0.05

Additional benefits and mechanics

  • Higher-tier countries get a −10 penalty per tier towards accepting diplomatic vassalization, increasing to −30 if the requesting country is of lower tier. Conversely, a country that is of lower rank than the proposer gets a bonus: a duchy towards a kingdom gets +10.
  • The government name displayed in game will vary depending on the rank. For example, the ranks for most republics will be diplayed as Republic, Grand Republic, and Great Republic, while for steppe nomads it will be Horde, Khanate, and Khaganate.
  • If the player has enabled the Common Sense.png Common Sense expansion, then the player becomes a Cultural union for their culture group at empire tier.
  • Obtaining Empire-tier is an Age Objective in the Age of Revolutions.png Age of Revolutions for those owning the Mandate of Heaven.png Mandate of Heaven DLC.

Fixed government rank

Some special government types have fixed government rank, regardless of prestige or development, and cannot change it manually or otherwise.

Fixed rank Governments
Empire rank Empire Government monarchy.png Celestial Empire, Government republic.png Revolutionary Republic, Government monarchy.png Revolutionary Empire, Government monarchy.png Tsardom
Kingdom rank Kingdom Government theocracy.png Papacy, Government monarchy.png Shogunate
Duchy rank Duchy Government theocracy.png Monastic Order, Government tribal.png Native Council, Government tribal.png Siberian Native Council, Government republic.png Free City, Government monarchy.png Daimyo, Government monarchy.png Russian Principality, Government republic.png Veche Republic, Government republic.png Colonial Government

Decisions and events changing government rank

Most country formation decisions will raise the government to empire or kingdom tier (if not already of a higher tier) without the need to reach the usual development thresholds. However:

  • Nearly all country formation decisions that change government rank to kingdom or empire tier will cause the country and all of its provinces to leave the HRE unless it is an Elector or the current Emperor. Note that these decisions are the only way to become an empire as an HRE elector, and the only way for a non-elector Emperor to rise above duchy.
  • Forming the Flag of Roman Empire Roman Empire or Flag of Germany Germany will always remove both the country and all its provinces from the HRE.
Rank acquired Country formation/reformation decisions
Empire Flag of Byzantium Byzantium, Flag of Persia Persia, the Flag of Timurids Timurids, Flag of Arabia Arabia, Flag of Germany Germany, Flag of Japan Japan, Flag of Bharat Bharat, Flag of Hindustan Hindustan, Flag of Rajputana Rajputana, Flag of Deccan Deccan, the Flag of Marathas Marathas, the Flag of Mughals Mughals, Flag of Inca Inca, Flag of Maya Maya, Flag of Qing Qing, Flag of Russia Russia, Flag of Ruthenia Ruthenia, the Flag of Roman Empire Roman Empire, the Flag of Golden Horde Golden Horde, the Flag of Ilkhanate Ilkhanate, the Flag of Mongol Empire Mongol Empire, and the united Flag of Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom All other formables except Flag of Iceland Iceland, Flag of Tuscany Tuscany, the Flag of Mamluks Mamluks, Flag of Austria Austria, Flag of Kurland Kurland, Flag of Punjab Punjab, Flag of Orissa Orissa, Flag of Nagpur Nagpur, and Flag of Prussia Prussia (only when formed with the Flag of Teutonic Order Teutonic Order)

In addition, the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans and Flag of Rûm Rûm can become empires through the decision to make Constantinople their capital, while Flag of Persia Persia has an event raising it to empire status if it is Shia, has at least 70% Religious unity.png religious unity and controls the Persian heartland. Elector theocracies of the HRE may become kingdom-tier with the Elevate Bishopric to an Archbishopric decision if they are no longer Catholic or by spending 25 Papal influence.png papal influence. However, Christian theocracies secularizing into monarchies by decision will be downgraded to duchies if they don't meet the usual Development.png 300 development threshold.

Strengthen Government

On the government tab is a button to "Strengthen Government" by spending 100 Military power.png military power. By doing this, the country gets one of the following, as appropriate for the government type and active expansions:

  • +10 Legitimacy.png Legitimacy
  • +10 Devotion.png Devotion
  • +10 Horde unity Horde Unity
  • +10 Meritocracy.png Meritocracy
  • +3% Republican tradition.png Republican Tradition

Additionally, from the Age of Absolutism.png Age of Absolutism onwards, it gets:

  • +2 Absolutism.png Absolutism

Government reforms

Government reforms allow the player to custom-tailor the nation's government to their needs by picking the desired reforms at the different tiers using Government reform progress points.

There are various reforms available to each of the government types with each tier having (usually) 2-3 reforms. The first tier usually determines the chosen power structure of the nation and consequently defines what abilities/mechanics are enabled to that nation. The last tier usually allows changing to a different government type though it comes at the cost of losing several reform tiers.

The game starts with first step already passed. The second tier costs 100 reform points and each following step has its cost increased by an additional 50 reform points. It is possible to change picked reforms at a cost of Corruption.png +10 corruption.

Reform points have a base accumulation of +10 points per year, further multiplied by a variable related to the level of autonomy of the nation' provinces.


  1. Without Dharma the game uses the old government system (consisting mostly of government forms from tier 1).
  2. Special governments made available through other DLCs are denoted as such.

Government types

Government types are organized into five major groups. Each type uses a different stat to track the loyalty of the nation to the ruler.

Switching government type

It is possible to peacefully Change government type.png change the type of government in power for 100Administrative power.pngadministrative power in the government interface, though only within certain groups of government types listed below. The other government types are barred from doing this. For example, a feudal monarchy can become a despotic monarchy in this manner, but not a constitutional republic (different group) or a revolutionary empire (not allowed at all). New government types become available as administrative technology is researched.

Various decisions allow most types of monarchy (with the right idea groups completed) to peacefully become a theocracy, an oligarchic republic, or a merchant republic; similarly, the Secularization decision allows a theocracy or a monastic order to transition into an administrative monarchy, and non-merchant republics may become merchant republics.

A country can be changed forcibly to another government group (e.g., a monarchy turning into a republic and vice versa) via a revolt (e.g., if Pretender rebels.png pretender rebels overrun the state) and/or, for republics, by lowering republican tradition to 0. Certain events (particularly disasters) and decisions can also change government type.

Released nations retain the government type of their overlord, so it's possible to change government type at the start of the game by playing as a country of the desired government (or vassalizing it and switching to it), conquering the desired country, then releasing it as nation and switching to playing with it.


Main article: Monarchy

Government monarchy.png Monarchy is a form of government where power is held by a single individual, i.e. the monarch. The ruler reigns until death. Several mechanics, such as royal marriages and personal unions, are mostly limited to monarchical forms of governments.


Main article: Republic

Government republic.png Republic is a form of government where power is, in contrast to a monarchy, held by a group of people. Republics have Republican tradition.png republican tradition instead of legitimacy. In some republics the ruler rules for life, but in others there is an election cycle.


Main article: Theocracy

Government theocracy.png Theocracy is a form of government where power is held by the religious elite. Theocracies get to designate a heir from a list of candidates. Although the choice does not affect the future heir's All power costs.png monarch skills (set at random), they give the player different effects and events once the heir comes into power.

Tribal governments

Government tribal.png A tribe is regarded as a society that hasn't developed a concrete definition of what a Westphalian nation-state is. Nomadic by nature, the power is held by either a chief or by a group of fellow tribesmen. They can be either Monarchies (using legitimacy, royal mariages, etc.) or Republics (using republican tradition) but cannot change their government type into the mainstream ones unless they take a special reform decision. Apart from tribal federations, they all have maluses to Institution spread.png institution spread as well as reduced Diplomatic relations.png diplomatic relations (mitigated at Kingdom rank kingdom rank and gone at Empire rank empire rank).

Tribal Administration

Type Effects Description & notes
Steppe Nomads
  • National manpower modifier.png +20% National manpower modifier
  • Land forcelimit.png +20% Land force limit modifier
  • Years of separatism.png −5 Years of separatism
  • Looting speed.png +50% Looting speed
  • Institution spread.png −15% Institution spread
  • Movement speed.png +20% Movement speed
  • Reinforce cost.png −50% Reinforce cost
  • Cavalry to infantry ratio.png +25% Cavalry to infantry ratio
Steppe Nomads icon
A governmental form where a sovereign or military ruler rule a tribal chiefdom, with constant Casus Bellis on all their neighbors and troops who fight better on the plains.

Great Mongol State
  • National manpower modifier.png +20% National manpower modifier
  • Land forcelimit.png +20% Land force limit modifier
  • Horde unity +1 Yearly horde unity
  • Years of separatism.png −5 Years of separatism
  • Looting speed.png +50% Looting speed
  • Movement speed.png +20% Movement speed
  • Reinforce cost.png −50% Reinforce cost
  • Cavalry to infantry ratio.png +25% Cavalry to infantry ratio
Great Mongol State icon
The Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan has been restored under our leadership. We are rebuilding the systems of government established by the Great Khan while avoiding the mistakes of his unworthy successors.

  • Only available for the Flag of Mongol Empire Mongol Empire
  • +25% shock damage increase on plain-like territory.
  • −25% shock damage decrease on non-plain-like territory
  • Can raise Banner units.
  • May establish new Tributary subjects
  • Fixed rank: Empire rank Empire
Tribal Federation
  • Years of separatism.png −5 Years of separatism
Tribal Federation icon
A governmental form where a confederation of tribes rule with a certain degree of internal autonomy but are nationally governed by a central authority.

  • Only available to Flag of Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu, Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu and 7 small landlocked tribes of the Arabian Peninsula (all the Bedouin cultured countries plus Flag of Yas Yas)
  • Uses Yearly tribal allegiance.png tribal allegiance mechanics
Tribal Despotism
  • Core-creation cost.png −10% Core-creation cost
Tribal Despotism icon
A political system where the tribe is controlled by an individual ruler with unlimited power and the ability to exercise any action without consequence or retribution, often ruling through fear.
Tribal Monarchy
  • Income from vassals.png +20% Income from vassals
Tribal Monarchy icon
A political system where a large tribal society has formed a kingdom, with one strong ruler who rules through law.
Siberian Native Council
  • Stability cost modifier.png −33% Stability cost modifier
  • Institution spread.png −20% Institution spread
Siberian Native Council icon
The Siberian Council is as an assembly of elders that is led by a joint chief.

  • Nations with this government form that own only one province can migrate to a neighbouring province
  • Fixed rank: Duchy rank Duchy
Gond Kingdom
  • Fort defense.png +20% Fort defense
Gond Kingdom icon
Gondwana is a land of jungles, hills and forts but most of all it is a land of many tribes. Controlling this land means affording various minor power holders a large degree of self rule and privilege. Forts are imperative to control the various groups within our kingdom and controlling them will allow us to command the loyalties of the Gond people.

  • Only available for Indian technology group Indian nations with Gondi culture.

Tribal Cultural Values

Type Effects Description & notes
Martial Society
  • National manpower modifier.png +20% National manpower modifier
Martial Society icon
Martial values have always been important in our society and as we expand a militarized society is what we must continue to build and preserve at the core of our state.
Civil Society
  • National tax modifier.png +5% National tax modifier
  • Yearly corruption −0.05 Yearly corruption
Civil Society icon
No state can exist with only warriors. We must build up stronger ties with civil society and the urbanites in our realm so that we can better extract revenue from them.

Tribal Religion

Type Effects Description & notes
Religious Societies
  • Stability cost modifier.png −10% Stability cost modifier
  • Religious unity.png +15% Religious unity
Religious Societies icon
While clan loyalties can take us far our expansion has made us the masters of more peoples than we once did. A strongly religious society can withstand expansion in both time and space more efficiently and will give us the cohesion we need.
Lip Service
  • Land maintenance modifier.png −10% Land maintenance modifier
Lip Service icon
While it is important to observe religious practices to maintain our legitimacy we should not get bogged down in the principles of righteous rule and morality. Pragmatism will take us longer and allow us to support a larger state and army.


Type Effects Description & notes
Centralize Power
  • Stability cost modifier.png −5% Stability cost modifier
  • Core-creation cost.png −5% Core-creation cost modifier
Centralize Power icon
We are too reliant on the loyalties of the clans and tribes within our state. Let us instead start to build up institutional loyalty and divide the responsibilities of the state between formal offices under our ruler.
Retain Tribal Hierarchy
  • Icon states.png +3 Number of states
  • Absolutism.png +10 Maximum absolutism
Retain Tribal Hierarchy icon
Any form of modernization must preserve the ancient hierarchies of the clans and tribes within our nation. Without the support of these groups our country will not be able to expand and thrive as it has up to now.

Tribal Reformation

Type Effects Description & notes
Reform into Monarchy
  • Changes government type to Government monarchy.png Monarchy.
  • Lose 4 government reforms.
Reform into Monarchy icon
It is time we abandon our tribal trappings and create a fully fledged monarchy carried by institutions and not clan loyalties.

  • Nations in the Nomad technology group Nomad technology group will be changed to Eastern technology group Eastern (if Christian), Muslim technology group Muslim (if Muslim), or Chinese technology group Chinese tech group
Reform into Republic
  • Changes government type to Government republic.png Republic.
  • Lose 4 government reforms.
Reform into Republic icon
We must guard the liberties of our citizens and form a state where the head of government is not hereditary but instead elected from those with the right qualities.

  • Nations in the Nomad technology group Nomad technology group will be changed to Eastern technology group Eastern (if Christian), Muslim technology group Muslim (if Muslim), or Chinese technology group Chinese tech group
Reform into Theocracy
  • Changes government type to Theocracy.
  • Lose 4 government reforms.
Reform into Theocracy icon
Religious guidance is the road forward for our people. Let us involve the clergy in the rule of our nation and reap the rewards of a just and

  • Nations in the Nomad technology group Nomad technology group will be changed to Eastern technology group Eastern (if Christian), Muslim technology group Muslim (if Muslim), or Chinese technology group Chinese tech group
Become Horde
  • Enacts the Steppe Horde reform
  • Changes technology group to Nomad technology group Nomad
Become Horde icon
The steppes call for our people. Let us abandon the sedentary traditions of our ancestors and fully embrace the free life of the open plains.

  • Mutually exclusive with Steppe Horde and Great Mongol State reforms

Tribal allegiance

Tribal federations use Yearly tribal allegiance.png tribal allegiance in addition to legitimacy.

The effects of tribal allegiance are proportional to its value. Listed below are the main milestones.

Yearly tribal allegiance.png Tribal Allegiance Yearly tribal allegiance.png 0 Yearly tribal allegiance.png 50 Yearly tribal allegiance.png 100
Effects No effect
  • Manpower recovery speed.png +16.5% Manpower recovery
  • National unrest.png −1.5 National unrest
  • Manpower recovery speed.png +33% Manpower recovery
  • National unrest.png −3 National unrest

Tribal allegiance is gained and lost as follows:

  • Winning battles and humiliating rivals increases tribal allegiance
  • Losing battles and being humiliated by rivals decreases tribal allegiance
  • Passive Yearly tribal allegiance.png −0.005 yearly tribal allegiance for each point of development the nation has (capped at Yearly tribal allegiance.png −3 yearly tribal allegiance at 600 Development.png development)

30 points of tribal allegiance can be spent for one of the following effects:

  • General.png Gain a general with Army tradition.png 40 army tradition;
  • Cavalry combat ability.png Get +15% cavalry combat ability for 10 years;
  • Cavalry.png Start production of 6 cavalry units in the capital at a quarter the time.

Government steppe horde.png Steppe nomads

Main article: Steppe hordes

Steppe nomads, normally referred to as hordes or khanates, is a loosely organized form of government where power is held mostly by the tribes, but united under the khan. They are barred from taking most country-formation decisions. It differs from mainstream monarchies in the way that each time a khan dies, all clan leaders are summoned to vote on the next khan: the khan has an heir, but if the khan dies and the heir is young enough to require a regency council, the heir is killed and replaced with another ruler.

See also: Tribal Succession Crisis

Steppe Nomads, similarly to the other tribal governments, can reform their government with a decision requiring at least 200 Administrative power.png administrative power, 3 Icon stability.png stability, at least 60 Horde unity horde unity (or 60 Legitimacy.png legitimacy if playing without The Cossacks.png The Cossacks expansion), having embraced Feudalism.png Feudalism, and having completed one of the following idea groups: Economic idea group.png Economic, Innovative idea group.png Innovative, or Administrative idea group.png Administrative. Taking the decision will decrease Icon stability.png stability by −5 and cost 200 Administrative power.png administrative power. The decision cannot be taken during a Tribal Succession Crisis.

See also: List of decision lists#Tribal

Certain hordes may also reform by forming Flag of Bukhara Bukhara (only Flag of Uzbek Uzbek) or the Flag of Mughals Mughals, transitioning into an Iqta, by forming Flag of Qing Qing (requires forming the Flag of Manchu Manchu beforehand), turning into a despotic monarchy, or by becoming the Celestial Empire.

Horde Unity

Steppe nomads use Horde unity horde unity instead of legitimacy.

The effects of horde unity are proportional to its value. Listed below are the main milestones.

Horde unity Horde Unity 0 25 50 75 100
  • National unrest.png +2 National unrest
  • Discipline.png −5% Discipline
  • National unrest.png +1 National unrest
  • Discipline.png −2.5% Discipline
No effect
  • National unrest.png −1 National unrest
  • Discipline.png +2.5% Discipline
  • National unrest.png −2 National unrest
  • Discipline.png +5% Discipline

Horde Unity is gained and lost as follows:

  • Base −2 per year
  • −0.01 per 2 total Development.png development the country owns, limited to −3
  • Tribes Tribes estate Estate loyalty Loyalty below 40:
    • Estate influence Influence below 20: −1 yearly
    • Estate influence Influence at least 20 but less than 40: −2 yearly
    • Estate influence Influence at least 40 but less than 60: −3 yearly
    • Estate influence Influence at least 60: −4 yearly
  • Looting: Horde unity +1 per 4 Gold Icon.png ducats looted
  • Razing: +1 per point of province Development.png development before razing
  • +0.005 yearly per point of Power projection.png power projection (+0.5 at 100)
  • +1 for passing the Great Mongol State Reform

Several ideas and policies increase horde unity:

Horde unity Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+1.0 yearly
  • Golden Horde idea 1: Legacy of the Golden Horde
  • Ilkhanid idea 1: Restored Ilkhanate
  • Manchu idea 4: The Later Jin
  • Oirat idea 3: The Four Oirats
  • Timurid idea 4: Chagatai Literature
  • Administrative-Aristocratic: The Licensing of the Press Act
  • Diplomatic-Plutocratic: Mandatory Service
+0.5 yearly
  • Jurchen idea 2: The Queue


Native Council

Main article: Native council

A native council is the government form of all native tribes in North America north of Mexico and in South America east of the Andes. The tribes of Eastern Siberia share some similarities with their New World counterparts.

These governments don't use Legitimacy.png legitimacy, Republican tradition.png republican tradition or any other type of government strength value. There is no heir system: at ruler's death, a new one is generated with random stats.

See also: List of decision lists § Tribal
Type Level Effects Description & notes
Native Council 0
  • Stability cost modifier.png −33% Stability cost modifier
  • Land maintenance modifier.png −50% Land maintenance modifier
  • Diplomatic relations.png −1 Diplomatic relations
  • Institution spread.png −2.5% Institution spread
One or more tribes ruled by a council of hereditary positions. Its members present unanimous decisions after lengthy discussions, although one chieftain has the honor of being the official spokesperson.
  • Does not have estates
  • Fixed rank: Duchy rank Duchy