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Christian denominations

Christianity includes the Catholic, Orthodox, and Coptic denominations at the default 1444 start date. After the Protestant Reformation event, some Catholic nations and provinces will begin to adopt the Protestant and Reformed religions. Additionally, England/Great Britain get the option to convert to Anglicanism. All six denominations consider the others to be Heretics, but not Heathens; additionally, Orthodox and Coptic countries enjoy a reduced "Tolerated Heretics" opinion penalty from and towards other Christians. Conversion from one denomination to another will cost a nation −100 Prestige.png prestige, but will give that nation +10% Missionary strength.png missionary strength for ten years. Orthodox and Coptic nations cannot convert to Protestantism, Anglicanism or Reformed, but Orthodox nations have the mission to Restore the Pentarchy, which upon completion will remove the Papacy from the game, thus disabling Excommunication, Crusades, and the college of Cardinals.

Only Christians may form personal unions.



Catholicism is the name of a Christian tradition with its roots in the old Latin rite that recognizes the Pope as the head of Christendom.
In 1444 Catholicism is the dominant Christian Church in western and northern Europe, but it will likely be broken up by Protestantism and Reformism during the reformation.

Catholics must contend with the intricacies of the Papacy system. The Catholic hierarchy is led by the Pope and includes cardinals and bishops. In Europa Universalis IV, this is represented by the Curia—the system of reserved positions used to designate the administrative apparatus of the Roman Catholic Church, and more specifically, the Holy See.

Modifiers for being Catholic:

  •   +1 Tolerance of the True Faith
  •   −1 Tolerance of heretics

May interact with the Papal system if capital is in Europe. Eligible to receive both the benefits and penalties of Treaty of Tordesillas (with   El Dorado DLC)

Possible heresies include: Bogomilist, Waldensian, Fraticelli, Hussite, Lollard, and Socinian.


Main article: Papacy

There are 49 seats in the Curia, and new   cardinals will be appointed to vacant seats on the first day of every year. These are allocated semi-randomly among Catholic nations, favouring higher development provinces and nations with more total development.

Catholic nations accrue   papal influence which can either be invested towards a chance of being papal controller or spent to gain stability, mercantilism or one of several 20-year modifiers. During the reign of a Pope, any Catholic nation (except   the Papal State) may convert some of their stored papal influence into installments of 10 invested influence, with a diminishing conversion rate each time this is done: the first 10 invested influence costs 5   papal influence, the next 10 invested influence costs 10   papal influence, then 15   papal influence, and so on. The Papal State does not accumulate papal influence, but automatically gains invested influence based on the number of Cardinals in existence. When the current Pope dies, each Catholic nation has a chance of becoming the next Papal Controller equal to the ratio of their invested influence to the total invested influence of all Catholic nations (this total includes invested influence accrued ex nihilo by the Papal State).

Reform desireEdit

  Reform desire is a trait shared by the entire Catholic world, representing religious outrage caused by the excesses of Catholic monarchs. Reform desire increases or decreases based on monarchs' reactions to Catholic events. Once reform desire reaches a threshold (95%), the Reformation has a chance to happen, starting the new Protestant (and later, Reformed) Christian denominations.

Regardless of the players' actions, reform desire will gradually tick up by 0.5% each year and generally increase based on AI nations' choices.


The Hussites are followers of Jan Hus, a Bohemian religious reformer who was burned at the stake for heresy in 1415. They are a diverse group of non-conformists ranging from moderates with minor theological disagreements with Catholic doctrine to radicals who see the Catholic Church as irredeemably corrupt.

Bohemia can decide to become Hussite after the "Return of the Hussites!" event. If chosen, it will also change your ruler to a   5 /   4 /   3 named Jiri z Podebrad.

Modifiers for being Hussite:

  •   +2% Missionary strength vs. heretics
  •   −5% Shock Damage received

It can get a reformation centre through the bohemian mission tree. The Hussite religion has various church aspects which can be added and changed via church power. Church power is generated in the same method as the Protestant Religion aspects.

Church aspectsEdit

Aspect Effects
Clerical Poverty   −15% Stability cost modifier
  −10% Clergy Influence
Bread and Wine   +1 Tolerance of the true faith
  +5% Goods produced modifier
Sola Scriptura   −10% War score cost vs other religions
Adamite Services   −20% Culture conversion cost
Pacifism   +30% Improve relations
  +1 Stability hit to declare war
Punishement of Sins   −0.05 Yearly corruption
  −10% Nobility influence
Regular Defenstration   −33% Harsh treatment cost
Taborite Resurgence   +20% National manpower modifier
Orphan Hetmans   −1% Yearly army tradition decay
Freedom to Preach   +1 Tolerance of heretics
  +10% Religious unity


Protestantism covers a wide range of religious traditions starting with the teachings of Martin Luther during the reformation. They react against a number of the conventions that over time have developed in the Catholic church and the idea of a pope itself.
In the game, Protestantism cover mainly countries inspired by Luther's teachings and who have formed state churches.

Protestantism is enabled in campaigns that have been started after the 31st of October 1517 (Reformation Day) or after the   event ‘The Protestant Reformation’ which may happen if the   reform desire of Catholicism has reached 95%. The capital of the country that had this initial event becomes a Protestant   centre of reformation. The first two nations that convert to Protestantism will also get a centre of reformation in a random province. These centres of reformation convert nearby non-Protestant Christian provinces to Protestant, much like a missionary but with 5% extra conversion strength, in a maximum range of 150. A centre of reformation can only be removed by converting the province to a religion other than Protestantism, but this is very difficult as they have a -5% local missionary strength modifier.

10 years after the appearance of Protestantism, the Age of Discovery will end and the Age of Reformation will begin.

All Protestant nations receive:

  •   +10% National tax modifier
  •   +15% Improve relations
  • No papal interaction.
  • Possible heresies include: Pentecostal, Puritan, and Congregationalist.

Church powerEdit

With the Common Sense expansion active, Protestantism has   church power. Church Power accumulates over time and can be used to buy aspects, which are permanent modifiers added to that country's particular version of Protestantism. Similar to idea group events, each aspect also seems to have events associated with it while active. A country can only have 3 aspects, after which Church Power can be used to trade in an existing aspect for a new one. Gaining an aspect or replacing one with another costs 100 church power.

Church power formula:


  • Base monarch power is the amount of monarch power the country gains every month including all bonuses (ruler skills, advisors, power projection bonus, base value).
  • Other modifiers is the sum of modifiers that also affect monthly church power gain; for example, being a lucky nation gives +25%.
  Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Religious idea 4: Devoutness
  • Anhalt idea 7: The Confessor
  • Ansbach idea 3: Franconian Reformers
  • Bayreuther idea 4: Franconian Reformers
  • Bolognese idea 3: Rebellion Against the Papacy
  • Clevian idea 3: Avid Reformers
  • Icelandic idea 3: Christian Identity
  • Rigan idea 1: Legacy of Bishop Albert
  • Saxe-Lauenburg idea 5: The Church Order of Hadeln
  • Saxon idea 5: Corpus Evangelicorum
  • Trierian idea 5: The Seamless Robe of Jesus
  • Utrecht idea 2: Ex Cathedra
  • Münster traditions
  • Wurzburgian traditions
  • Hessian idea 3: Welcome the Reformers
  • Teutonic idea 4: Assume Religious Authority

Note: Religious unity and other modifiers are displayed as percentages in the game. To use them in the formula, convert them to a multiplier, i.e. divide the percentage by 100. (10% is 0.1 for example.)

Church aspectsEdit

Aspect Effects
Organized through bishops   −5% Development cost
Priests may marry   −10% Stability cost modifier
Adult baptism   +1% Missionary strength
Holy sacraments   +2.5% Discipline
Saints accept prayers   +5% Morale of armies
  +5% Morale of navies
Icons   +0.50 Yearly prestige
Legalised divorces   +0.25 Yearly legitimacy
  +0.10 Yearly republican tradition
  +0.25 Yearly devotion
  +0.25 Yearly horde unity
Heretics deported   +15.00 Global settler increase
Parish registers   +10% Manpower recovery speed
Individual creeds   −5% Idea cost
Allow usury   +10% Production efficiency
Translated Bibles   −1 National unrest


Reformed covers a wide range of religious traditions inspired by men such as Jean Calvin or John Knox. Generally appearing later than the religions classified as Protestant the Reformed religion also rejects papal authority and want to return to the rules of the scriptures but unlike the Protestants they embrace a number of perceived more hard-line ideas such as predestination and iconoclasm and will not form state Churches.

The Reformed religion typically appears a decade or so after the Reformation begins and has the same Centers of Reformation mechanic as the Protestant religion, these centres just spread the Reformed religion instead of Protestantism.

All Reformed nations receive:

  •  +1 Possible advisors
  •  +2 Tolerance of heretics
  • No papal interaction.
  • Possible heresies include: Methodist, Baptist, and Quaker.


The Reformed faith has the unique mechanic of   fervor. Every month a nation with Reformed religion generates fervor depending on:

+1 as Reformed country (base)
+1 for being at peace
+1 for each step of positive   stability
+1 for having luck (AI only)
up to +1 from   religious unity
−1+1 from   prestige
−1+1 from   Clergy depending on influence and loyalty
−2 for being bankrupt

Ideas and policies:

  Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Genevan idea 3: The Home of John Calvin
  • Religious idea 4: Devoutness
  • Anhalt idea 7: The Confessor
  • Bolognese idea 3: Rebellion Against the Papacy
  • Clevian idea 3: Avid Reformers
  • Icelandic idea 3: Christian Identity
  • Rigan idea 1: Legacy of Bishop Albert
  • Trierian idea 5: The Seamless Robe of Jesus
  • Utrecht idea 2: Ex Cathedra


  Event modifier Trigger Duration
−1 Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité Cultural event: “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité
Option: ‘Let us embrace these ideas!’
for 20 years.
+0.1 Banned Musical Instruments in Church Reformed religion event: “Instruments in Church
Option: ‘Issue a ban’
for 25 years.

A country can store up to 100 fervor points. These points are needed to activate fervent foci.

Fervent focus on Effects
  •  −2 National unrest
  •  +1 Diplomatic reputation
  •  +10% Global trade power
  •  +10% Trade efficiency
  •  +10% Morale of armies
  •  +10% Morale of navies

Each active focus cost 5 fervor points a month. It is possible to activate any combination. If the stored fervor points are depleted then the foci will become inactive until there are enough positive points again. The foci will deactivate in the opposite order they were implemented.


The Orthodox Christian tradition has its root in the Greek rite and considers itself to be closer to the original Christian ideals than Catholicism. The Orthodox Churches reject the idea of the Pope and are instead divided into a number of churches presided over by Patriarchs.
In the game much of Eastern Europe is Orthodox religion.

Every Orthodox nation has their own patriarch, who does not have to answer to the Ecumenical Patriarch in Constantinople, unlike Catholicism where all branches and sub-hierarchies exist under the singular authority of the Pope, Bishop of Rome and Patriarch of the West.

All Orthodox countries also receive:

  •  −10% Stability cost modifier
  •  +1 Tolerance of the True Faith
  • Halved relations penalty from non-Orthodox Christians (they consider the Orthodox to be "misguided heretics")
  • Possible heresies include: Old Believers, Molokan, Dukhobor, Khlyst, Skoptsy, and Iconoclast.

All Orthodox provinces receive:

  •  −1% Local missionary strength[1]

NB: If playing a converted Crusader Kings 2 save in which the schism has been mended, Catholicism will become a heresy of Orthodoxy.

Patriarch authorityEdit

The Orthodox religion has the unique feature of   patriarch authority. Events will periodically pop up enabling you to increase or decrease the authority and prestige of your autocephalous patriarchate. Patriarch authority is not shared between all Orthodox nations in the way that reform desire is shared among all Catholics; each Orthodox nation has its own patriarch authority (thus, for example, Muscovy's decisions will not affect Byzantium's patriarch authority). This reflects the autocephaly of the Orthodox church.

Each point of authority will increase missionary strength by 0.02% for the entire country, while reducing local unrest by −0.03 and increasing the manpower pool by 0.33% in Orthodox provinces, ultimately reaching the numbers below at 100%.

Effects at 100% patriarch authority:[2]

National effects Effects in owned Orthodox provinces
  +2% Missionary strength
  +10% Clergy influence
  −3 Local unrest
  +33% Local manpower modifier

Patriarch authority can be acquired or lost in several ways:


Orthodox countries may spend 10 patriarch authority to commission an icon for all churches in country which will last for 20 years. The chosen icon's benefits occur immediately upon selection. A different icon may be selected at any time. Commissioning a new icon while a previous icon is still active will replace the effects of the previous icon, as there can only be one active icon at a time. The same icon can only be commissioned after it has expired. There are 5 possible icons:

Icons Effects Description
  Icon of Christ Pantocrator
  •   −10% Construction cost
  •   −10% Development cost
Christ Pantocrator depicts the All-powerful Christ, mild yet stern. It is one of the most popular religious images in our Church and is often seen painted inside the central dome of a church.
  Icon of Eleusa
  •   −3 National unrest
  •   −25% Harsh treatment cost
The Eleusa icon depicts the tender Virgin Mary with an infant Christ nestled against her cheek. It expresses motherly love and the worry for one's child.
  Icon of St. John Climacus
  •   −20% Institution embracement cost
  •   +25% Institution spread
The Author of 'The Ladder of Divine Ascent', St. John Climacus has inspired generations of Orthodox Christians by describing how to strive towards the divine through asceticism and a pious life.
  Icon of St. Michael
  •   +10% Manpower recovery speed
  •   +5% Discipline
Saint Michael, the Archistrategos, is the commander of the heavenly hosts and the Archangel who will defeat Satan in the war in Heaven. Icons of Saint Michaels are common throughout Orthodox Christendom and most Russian cities have a church dedicated to him.
  Icon of St. Nicholas
  •   +25% Improve relations
  •   −10% Aggressive expansion impact
Nikolaos the wonderworker or the bearer of gifts, is one of the earliest Christian saints and appears on many icons as an elderly man with a white beard.

With an icon commissioned the country can get the Orthodox icon events.

Consecrate metropolitanEdit

Orthodox countries may use the ‘Consecrate Metropolitan’ mechanic in states that meet the following criteria:

  • At least 30 development in provinces in the state owned and cored by this country
  • All provinces in the state must be Orthodox
  • All provinces in the state must be either of an accepted culture or part of that country's culture group.
  • No province in the state may be a territorial core

Consecrating a metropolitan gives a one-time boost of 5% patriarch authority, and has the following permanent effects on the state:

  +10% State maintenance
  −0.05 Monthly devastation

Turning a state which has been consecrated into a territory will revoke its consecration and remove these effects.

If the country has consecrated a metropolitan then metropolitan events may trigger.


Coptic Christianity is a branch of Christendom that follow the Alexandrine rite and who answer to the Patriarch in Alexandria.
With the fall of Egypt to the Muslims hundreds of years ago the Patriarch is controlled by a Non-Christian state with the Coptic religion surviving as the majority faith only in Ethiopia and Nubia.

The Coptic Church (Miaphysitism) is an ancient Christian denomination. The head of the church is the Patriarch of Alexandria, also known as the Coptic Pope. This denomination was dominant among the native Egyptians, Abyssinians, Armenians, and Assyrians (technically only Egyptians and Abyssinians are part of the Coptic Church, but Armenians and Assyrians are similar enough that the game represents them as the same religion). The Islamic conquest of the Middle East led to the Copts becoming subjugated and gradually converted until they became a minority. Turkish rule over the east spared the remaining Armenian and Assyrian Christians, as the Turks were somewhat more tolerant than the local rulers.

All Coptic countries receive:

  •  +1 Tolerance of the True Faith
  •  +10% Fort defense
  • Halved relations penalty from non-Coptic Christians (they consider the Copts to be "misguided heretics")
  • Possible heresies include: Zamikaelites (comes from Abba Za-Mikael Aragawi), Stephanites (comes from Abba Estifanos of Gwendagwende) and Eustathians (comes from Eutyches; monophysitism).

All Coptic provinces receive:

  •  −2% Local missionary strength[1]

Holy sitesEdit

A list of patriarchal blessings.

Coptic countries get a unique Holy Sites system. They will have access to a screen showing their Holy Sites. There are 5 in total. In the coptic faith screen is detailed who is currently controlling which site and the faith followed by the province. It is the Copts' holy mission to see these restored to Coptic control.

The following provinces are Holy Sites:

If a Holy Site is held by any Coptic nation and the province itself is Coptic then all Coptic nations will be granted a blessing from the Patriarch. Nations are able to pick from the 5 available blessings, however losing ownership of a Holy Site to a nation of another faith will remove the blessing until it is returned to Coptic hands. If a blessing has been picked, it can not be exchanged for a different one.

In 1444 the only Holy site that is Coptic and in the control of the Copts is Aksum, in the far north of   Ethiopia. This allows all existing Coptic nations to pick one blessing of their choice from the list below. Qasr Ibrim, is also under Coptic control at 1444; unlike Aksum, though, its population is not Coptic itself, although   Makuria gets an event that gives a province modifier to Qasr Ibrim that makes it easier to convert the province to Coptic Orthodoxy.

Name Effect
Legitimize Government
  •  +0.5 Yearly legitimacy
  •  +0.5 Yearly horde unity
  •  +0.2 Yearly republican tradition
  •  +0.5 Yearly devotion
Encourage Warriors of the Faith  +10% Manpower recovery speed
Send Monks to Establish Monasteries  +1.5% Missionary strength
Promote Territorial Rights  −10% Core-creation cost
Will of the Martyrs  +2.5% Discipline

Unlike other religious mechanics, the Coptic Holy Sites collectively make all followers of that religion stronger. It makes no difference in the available Blessings if the player's nation or another Coptic nation holds the Holy Sites. Should the Copts fight back from their perilous position in 1444 and secure their Holy Sites, they will be that much stronger.


Anglicanism is a form of christianity in which the head of state is also the Supreme Governor of the Church. Theologically and institutionally, Anglicanism retains many elements of Catholicism while also being influenced by Reformed Puritans and continental Protestants.

The Anglican faith is a fusion of Catholic and Protestant theology forged in the religious disputes in England of the 15th and 16th centuries, particularly the two Acts of Supremacy under Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. It can appear somewhere in the Britain region, at least 15 years after Protestantism appears but before 1600. Depending on the choice of the country that gets the event, it may or may not get a Center of Reformation.


 The Church of $COUNTRY$

As the Protestant Reformation radically shifts the religious landscape of Europe, $COUNTRY$ must take a firm stance on its faith. This has of course provoked much discussion in court, with some favoring the Protestant cause and others defending the traditional religion.

[Root.Monarch.GetTitle] [Root.Monarch.GetName], however, has a novel idea for the creation of a different sort of Church. A Church with the [Root.Monarch.GetTitle] as its Supreme Governor, a happy union of Church and state. Neither Protestant, Catholic, nor Reformed, it would take a flexible approach to doctrine as fits the circumstance.

Such a Church would have its advantages. No longer subject to any higher ecclesiastical authority, the [Root.Monarch.GetTitle] could marry and divorce at will, determine the nation’s theological direction, and have the assurance that they are appointed to rule directly by God.

Trigger conditions
  • DLC   Rule Britannia is active
  • The   Protestant religion is enabled
  • Is not a lesser partner in a personal union
  • None of:
    • Country flag had_anglican_question is set
  • Is not a subject nation
  • The   Protestant religion has existed for at least 15 years
  • None of:
    • The   Anglican religion is enabled
  • Religion is in Christian group
  • Is not Defender of the Faith
  • Capital:
    • Province is in Britain region
  • Culture is in British group
  • Any owned province in Britain region that is a valid choice for an   Anglican   center of reformation[3]
  • Owns at least 10 non-colony provinces
  • None of:
Mean time to happen

120 months

Immediate effects
  • Set country flag had_anglican_question

Option conditions

 Enabled if:

  • DLC   Rule Britannia is active
Found a new state Church
  • enable_religion = anglican
  • If:
    • Limited to:
      • Religion is   Catholic
    •   The Papal State gains opinion modifier “Upset the Pope” towards this country
  • Change religion to   Anglican
  • If:
    • Limited to:
      • None of:
        • Country flag reformation_money is set
    • Gain   ducats equal to 1 year of income
  • If:
    • Limited to:
      • Capital:
        • Is not a Center of Reformation
    • Capital:
      • Change religion to   Anglican
      • Gain permanent province modifier “Religious Zeal” for 9000 days, giving the following effects:
        •   −100% Local missionary strength
  • One random owned province:
    • Limited to:
      • Religion is   Catholic
    • Change religion to   Anglican
    • Gain permanent province modifier “Religious Zeal” for 9000 days, giving the following effects:
      •   −100% Local missionary strength
  • Gain country modifier “Religious Zeal” for 3650 days, giving the following effects:
    •   +10% Missionary strength vs heretics
    • missionary_maintenance_cost = -0.33

 Enabled if:

  • DLC   Rule Britannia is active
  • It is currently the   Age of Reformation
  • None of:
    • Any province:
      • Is a Center of Reformation
      • Religion is   Anglican
Evangelize the new Church to the world!
  • enable_religion = anglican
  • Change religion to   Anglican
  • If:
    • Limited to:
      • Capital:
        • can_have_center_of_reformation_trigger = {
   RELIGION = anglican
    • Capital:
      • Change religion to   Anglican
      • Create a   Anglican Center of Reformation
      • Gain permanent province modifier “Religious Zeal” for 9000 days, giving the following effects:
        •   −100% Local missionary strength
  • Else:
    • One random owned province:
      • Limited to:
        • can_have_center_of_reformation_trigger = {
   RELIGION = anglican
      • Change religion to   Anglican
      • Create a   Anglican Center of Reformation
      • Gain permanent province modifier “Religious Zeal” for 9000 days, giving the following effects:
        •   −100% Local missionary strength
  • One random owned province:
    • Limited to:
      • Religion is   Catholic
    • Change religion to   Anglican
    • Gain permanent province modifier “Religious Zeal” for 9000 days, giving the following effects:
      •   −100% Local missionary strength
  • Gain country modifier “Religious Zeal” for 3650 days, giving the following effects:
    •   +10% Missionary strength vs heretics
    • missionary_maintenance_cost = -0.33
  • Lose   ducats equal to 1 years of income
  • If:
    • Limited to:
      • Religion is   Catholic
    •   The Papal State gains opinion modifier “Upset the Pope” towards this country
  • Every country in the world:
    • Limited to:
      • Capital:
        • At least one of:
          • Province is in France region
          • Province is in Low Countries region
          • Province is in Britain region
      • Religion is   Catholic
    • Gain opinion modifier “Anglican Evangelism” towards (Our country)
  • Gain country modifier “Anglican Evangelism” for 3650 days, giving the following effects:
    •   −3 Diplomatic reputation

 Always enabled:

This sounds like a poor basis for a religion.
  • (custom tooltip - delete this line)

All Anglican countries receive:

  •   −10% Development cost
  •   +50% Innovativeness gain

Religious actionsEdit

Anglicanism uses the same Church Power mechanic as Protestantism (see above for details). However, church power is used differently, to take one of five religious actions.

Action   Potential Available Effect
  Divorce Consort 100
  • DLC   Rights of Man is active
  • Government is   monarchy
  • Government is not Iqta, Mamluk Government or Ottoman Government
  • Has a female consort
  • Does not have an heir
  • Is not the lesser partner in a personal union
  • Is not in a regency
The current consort is removed. (This does not end any royal marriages.)
  Marry Local Noblewoman 100
  • DLC   Rights of Man is active
  • Government is   monarchy
  • Government is not Iqta, Mamluk Government or Ottoman Government
  • Does not have a consort
  • Ruler is male
  • Is not the lesser partner in a personal union
  • Is not in a regency
Gain a random female consort from this country.
  Dissolve Monasteries 100 Has less than   1 000 000 ducats Gain   ducats equal to 0.25 years of income.
  Grant Monopoly 100   Mercantilism is less than 100% Gain   1% mercantilism.
  Progress of the Supreme Governor 200   Stability is less than 3 Gain   1 stability.


  1. 1.0 1.1 This means that these provinces are harder to convert.
  2. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers#Patriarch Authority (national) and Static modifiers#Patriarch Authority (local)).
  3. This means: it is in Europe; it is Catholic, Protestant, or Reformed; it is not Rome; it is connected by land and straits to the capital; it is not already a center of reformation; it is not a one-province island with no straits; it has at least 10 development; it does not neighbour another center of reformation; it is not in the same area as a center of reformation of the same religion; its climate is not Arctic, Arid, or Tropical; and its terrain is not Coastline, Coastal Desert, Steppe, Desert, or Glacier.

Ideas and Policies Idea groupsNational ideasPolicies
Ages and Institutions AgesInstitutions
Innovativeness and Technology InnovativenessTechnology