Europa Universalis 4 Wiki
For modding-related information, see Building modding

Buildings represent the infrastructure and development of a province. Investing ducats into buildings can give steady returns over the decades and centuries to come.

Building slotsEdit

Adding a new building requires one free building slot. Some buildings can be upgraded as technology advances. These upgraded buildings don't require an additional slot, and the existing building can be upgraded on the same slot. The maximum number of building slots a city can have is 12.[1]

The number of slots a province provides is mostly influenced by terrain and total development of the province:[2]


+2 Base
+1 Terrain is farmlands, grasslands, or drylands
+1 Has a   university
+1 Has a   courthouse
+1 Has a   town hall
+1 Has a level 3 center of trade in any province of this area
+1 Per 10   development in province, rounded down.
+1 Birthplace of   Industrialization
−1 Climate is   Arctic

Note: The University can be thought of as not occupying a slot. In case there are no available slots the University will in fact occupy the future slot it is supposed to provide (prior to Patch 1.15 the player would have had to remove a building, build the University, and then rebuild the original building).

Example: If Paris is a city, a core of   France, has farmlands terrain, a temperate climate and   32 development, then:


Building categoriesEdit

Buildings are built in provinces at the cost of   ducats. There are three types of building:

Normal buildingsEdit

These represent common buildings that the player can construct in every province. Buildings are divided into seven categories: government, army, navy, production, trade, defense and taxation.

Each category contains various amounts of buildings. Most of the buildings have an advanced version, but some (for example University) take one slot and can't be replaced by something better. It's not necessary to build a basic building before constructing the more advanced version, although the cost of the basic building will be deducted from the cost of the advanced one.


Each province is limited to one manufactory-level building. Manufactories are proto-industrial buildings that increase production of a specific class of trade good. For example, the weapons manufactory is only constructable on provinces that produce iron or copper. For a list, see below. Each manufactory is essentially the same as any other, except that they are unlocked at different levels and categories of technology. However, there is no manufactory for gold-producing provinces, while furnaces, which can be built on coal-producing provinces, will increase the production of all trade goods. Other manufactory-level buildings can increase defensiveness, increase soldier or sailor recruitment, or decrease the governing capacity required for all provinces in the state. It is possible to increase the number of possible manufactory-level buildings in a province using the Expand infrastructure mechanic.

Native buildingsEdit

Native American nations get a unique set of buildings that completely replace the usual buildings as long as they have the Tribal Council government. All buildings can be built without technological requirements unlike normal buildings and their effects are different from the normal buildings. Any native buildings built will be lost when the government is reformed.


All buildings cost   ducats to build. The cost of a building is reduced if a building that precedes it (meaning, it is an upgrade) is already built in the province; though the time requirement is not affected by this.

Construction cost is modified by the following:

−20% with the   native administrative idea “Migrative Traditions”
−15% with   Jacobins faction in power as   Revolutionary Republic
−15% with Seize Clerical Holdings action as   Feudal Theocracy
−10% with   Christ Pantocrator as icon (for   Orthodox nations)
−10% with   Ganga as personal deity (for   Hindu nations)
−10% with active ritual 'Dakhma' as   Zoroastrian nation (only with  )
−10% with   Jains at   Influence 60-100 (for   Indian technology group)
−10% with   Snotra as personal deity (for   Norse nations)
−10% with   bureaucrats faction in power as   Celestial Empire
−10% with   guilds faction in power as   Merchant Republic
−10% with the   ‘Architectural Visionary’ ruler personality
−5% during   parliament issue “Appropriate Land for the State”
−5% after embracing the Renaissance institution
+1% for each percentage point of   inflation
+10% with the   ‘Obsessive Perfectionist’ ruler personality

Ideas and policies:

  Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Brandenburg traditions
  • Kaurna idea 4: Redgum Shelters
  • Portuguese idea 6: Royal Absolutism
  • Rûmi idea 6: al-Sultan al-Muazzam
  • Tverian idea 4: Tverian Architects
  • Zimbabwe idea 1: Stone Masonry
  • Bukharan ambition
  • Aristocratic-Expansion: Manueline Architecture
  • Expansion-Indigenous: Shared Land
  • Ajuuraan traditions
  • Bolognese traditions
  • Cascadian traditions
  • Chachapoyan traditions
  • Hanoverian traditions
  • Korean traditions
  • Luccan traditions
  • Nanbu traditions
  • Nizhny Novgorod traditions
  • Shiba traditions
  • Sienese traditions
  • Sligonian traditions
  • Trading City traditions
  • Utsunomiya traditions
  • Economic idea 2: Organized Construction
  • Aachen idea 6: Baroque Architecture
  • Anatolian idea 6: Anatolian Architecture
  • Anhalt idea 4: Anhalt Castle
  • Augsburger idea 5: Elias Holl's Buildings
  • Australian idea 7: Waltzing Matilda
  • Berg idea 5: The Rhineland Market
  • Brunswicker idea 3: Residenzstadt Wolfenbüttel
  • Butua idea 1: Legacy of Zimbabwe
  • Cherokee idea 1: Moundbuilders Legacy
  • Chickasaw idea 1: Moundbuilders Legacy
  • Chimu idea 3: Split Inheritance
  • Colonial idea 3: Manufacturing Center of an Empire
  • Creek idea 1: Moundbuilders Legacy
  • Crimean idea 6: Settle the Crimean Steppe
  • Danish idea 6: Colonial Ventures
  • Desmondian idea 1: The Land of Castles
  • Dortmund idea 1: From the Ashes
  • Evenk idea 4: Siberian Resources
  • Finnish idea 4: Settle Middle Finland
  • Frisian idea 4: The Zuider Embankments
  • Georgian idea 4: Restoration of Fortresses and Churches
  • Goslar idea 2: Kaiserpfalz
  • Granada idea 5: Alhambra
  • Hausan idea 6: Sarkin Bayi
  • Icelandic idea 6: Resilient Craftsmen
  • Incan idea 5: Mit'a System
  • Ito idea 7: Development of Forestry
  • Kildarean idea 6: A New Seat for the FitzGeralds
  • Kitaran idea 5: Bachwezi Earthworks
  • Ladakh idea 4: Construction of Great Monasteries
  • Mesoamerican idea 6: Pyramid Architecture
  • Mexican idea 1: Rebuilding Mexico
  • Nagpuri idea 3: Send for Artisans
  • Nepalese Princedom idea 1: Continue Temple Construction
  • Orleanaise idea 5: Chateaux of the Loire Valley
  • Ormond idea 7: Entrenchment of the Butler Dynasty
  • Polotskian idea 7: Forest of Europe
  • Pueblo idea 2: Adobe Architecture
  • Rostov idea 5: Rostov Architecture
  • Rothenburg idea 4: The Knights of the Hinterland
  • Sardinian idea 6: Island of Cathedrals
  • Shirvani idea 6: Shirvani Architecture
  • Silesian idea 3: German Settlers
  • Sindhi idea 6: Oversee the Rise of Thatta
  • Southeastern Woodlands idea 5: Mound Builders
  • Sulu idea 6: Coconut Plantations
  • Sundanese idea 4: Elaborate Wooden Architecture
  • Three Leagues idea 5: Independent Cities
  • Tongan idea 5: The Bells of Tongatapu
  • Transylvanian idea 3: Transylvanian Saxons
  • West Indies idea 1: Plantation Economy
  • Client State ambition
  • Liège ambition
  • Montferrat ambition
  • Ulster ambition
  • Scandinavian idea 1: Masterful Craftsmanship
  • Swabian idea 5: A Miserly People

Many decisions, missions and events.

Local modifiersEdit

Provinces may also have local construction cost modifiers.

−20% producing   tropical wood
−10% in states of the   Jesuits or   Qadiri holy order
−5% in the HRE with the imperial reform “Call for Reichsreform”
+20% in states with assigned Pasha of ‘Ottoman Government

Construction timeEdit

Buildings need a certain time to be built. The base construction time of normal buildings is 12 months, for forts 30 months and for manufactories 60 months.

Construction time is modified by the following:

up to −10% with a neutral or loyal   Jains estate depending on their influence.

Ideas and policies:

  Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Anhalt idea 4: Anhalt Castle
  • Dortmund idea 1: From the Ashes
  • Frisian idea 4: The Zuider Embankments
  • Orleanaise idea 5: Chateaux of the Loire Valley

Some missions.

Local construction timeEdit

Provinces producing   iron have a   −20% local construction time modifier.

List of normal buildingsEdit


All normal buildings have a base construction time of   12 months and provide various benefits when completed.

Category Tech Normal buildings (required technology level)
Government   Courthouse (8)

  •   −0.1 Monthly autonomy change
  •   −25% State maintenance
  •   −25% Province governing cost
  •   +1 Building slot
  •   100 Ducats
Town hall (22)
Upgrades Courthouse

  •   −0.2 Monthly autonomy change
  •   −50% State maintenance
  •   −50% Province governing cost
  •   +1 Building slot
  •   200 Ducats
University (17)

  •   −20% Local development cost
  •   +1 Building slot
  •   300 Ducats
Production   Workshop (6)

  •   +50% Local production efficiency
  •   100 Ducats
Counting house (24)
Upgrades Workshop

  •   +100% Local production efficiency
  •   400 Ducats
Taxation   Temple (4)

  •   +40% Local tax modifier
  •   100 Ducats
Cathedral (19)
Upgrades Temple

  •   +60% Local tax modifier
  •   +3% Local missionary strength
  •   300 Ducats
Navy   Shipyard (8)

  •   +2 Naval force limit
  •   −25% Local shipbuilding time
  •   +25% Local ship repair
  •   100 Ducats
Grand shipyard (24)
Upgrades Shipyard

  •   +4 Naval force limit
  •   −50% Local shipbuilding time
  •   +50% Local ship repair
  •   300 Ducats
Dock (6)

  •   +50% Local sailors
  •   100 Ducats
Drydock (19)
Upgrades Dock

  •   +100% Local sailors
  •   300 Ducats
Trade   Marketplace (4)

  •   +50% Local trade power
  •   100 Ducats
Trade depot (17)
Upgrades Marketplace

  •   +100% Local trade power
  •   300 Ducats
Stock exchange (22)
Upgrades Trade depot

  •   +125% Local trade power
  •   400 Ducats
Coastal   Coastal defence (5)

  •   +50% Blockade force required
  •   +100% Hostile disembark time
  •   Blocks raid coasts
  •   100 Ducats
Naval battery (12)
Upgrades Coastal defence

  •   +100% Blockade force required
  •   +200% Hostile disembark time
  •   +5 Hostile fleet attrition
  •   Blocks raid coast
  •   200 Ducats
Army   Barracks (6)

  •   +50% Local manpower modifier
  •   100 Ducats
Training fields (16)
Upgrades Barracks

  •   +100% Local manpower modifier
  •   300 Ducats
Regimental camp (8)

  •   +1 Land force limit
  •   200 Ducats
Conscription center (22)
Upgrades Regimental camp

  •   +2 Land force limit
  •   400 Ducats


Main article: Land warfare#Forts

The defense type building (fort) has a base construction time of   30 months. Forts resist enemy occupation and must be sieged down. They also hinder enemy movement in the surrounding provinces during war, recapture neighboring unfortified provinces, and reduce devastation in neighboring provinces.

All forts require an ongoing monthly upkeep of   Fort maintenance which becomes higher depending on the fort's level. Mothballing a fort gives   −50% Fort maintenance for that individual fort.

Category Tech Normal buildings (required technology level)
Defense   Castle (1)

  •   +2 Fort level
  •   200 Ducats
  •   −1  Monthly fort maintenance
Bastion (14)
Upgrades Castle

  •   +4 Fort level
  •   400 Ducats
  •   −2  Monthly fort maintenance
Star fort (19)
Upgrades Bastion

  •   +6 Fort level
  •   600 Ducats
  •   −3  Monthly fort maintenance
Fortress (24)
Upgrades Star fort

  •   +8 Fort level
  •   800 Ducats
  •   −4  Monthly fort maintenance


All manufactories cost   500 ducats, have a base construction time of   60 months. A manufactory can only be built in a province which has its associated trade goods present.

Manufactory Tech Level Required trade good Modifier
  Farm estate   6   Grain,   Livestock,   Wine   +1 Local goods produced
  Ramparts   6 all trade goods
  •   +1 Attrition for enemies
  •   +15% Local defensiveness
  •   +1 Local defender dice roll bonus
  Impressment offices   7   Salt,   Fish,   Naval supplies,   Tropical wood
  •   +500 Sailor increase
  •   −20% Local shipbuilding time
  •   −10% Local ship cost
remaining trade goods
  •   +250 Sailor increase
  •   −10% Local shipbuilding time
  •   −5% Local ship cost
  Textile manufactory   11   Cloth,   Dyes,   Silk,   Wool   +1 Local goods produced
  Weapons manufactory   11   Copper,   Iron   +1 Local goods produced
  State house   12   Paper,   Glass,   Gems
  •   −40% Statewide governing cost
  •   −30% Province governing cost
  •   −20 Province governing cost
  •   −10% Minimum local autonomy
  •   +1 Possible number of buildings
remaining trade goods
  •   −20% Statewide governing cost
  •   −15% Province governing cost
  •   −10 Province governing cost
  •   −5% Minimum local autonomy
  •   +1 Possible number of buildings
  Plantation   14   Cocoa,   Coffee,   Cotton,   Sugar,   Tea,   Tobacco   +1 Local goods produced
  Trade station   14   Cloves,   Fur,   Incense,   Ivory,   Slaves,   Spices   +1 Local goods produced
  Soldier's households   15   Grain,   Fish,   Livestock,   Wine   +1500 Manpower increase
remaining trade goods   +750 Manpower increase
  Mill   16   Chinaware,   Gems,   Glass,   Paper,   Tropical Wood   +1 Local goods produced
  Furnace   21   Coal   +5% Goods produced modifier[3]

List of native buildingsEdit

All native buildings have a base construction time of   12 months. All native buildings are lost after reforming the government.

Normal native buildingsEdit

All normal native buildings cost 100   ducats, except for Irrigation and Palisades, which cost 200  .

Building Effect
  •   +25% Local defensiveness
  •   −25% Hostile movement speed
  Great Trail   +50% Local manpower modifier
  Irrigation +0.01 Tribal development growth
  •   +1 Fort level [4]
  •   −0.5  Monthly fort maintenance
  Storehouse   +50% Local production efficiency
  Three-Sisters Field   +50% Local goods produced
  •   +0.1 Monthly reform progress
  •   −25% Province governing cost

Unique native buildingsEdit

All unique native buildings cost 200   ducats. It is only possible to build one of each unique building per nation.

Building Effect
  Ceremonial Fire Pit   −50% Advisor cost
  +0.2 Monthly reform progress
  Fortified House   +5 Land force limit
  Sweat Lodge   +1 Diplomatic reputation

Building strategyEdit

  The below is one of many player suggested strategies for Buildings. Bear in mind, due to the dynamic nature of the game, it may unfold differently for other players.

General considerationsEdit

There are some general rules of thumb that should be taken to heart when investing in buildings:

  • Money should be invested in buildings only if it isn't needed for something more important.
  • The time needed to generate a profit should be noted; some provinces may be too poor to ever generate a profit in the remaining time-frame.[5]
  • When considering a large building spree, it might be advisable to invest in the   Economic idea group and couple it with policies to reduce the building costs.
  • It's good to remember that besides   local autonomy, province income can also be affected by the province's   culture and religion (if different than the state religion).
  • Space is limited. The number of buildings can only be increased by increasing the   development level, or  raising a center of trade to level three (only in states and trade companies), if one exists in the province. (Corollary: increase development to open more spaces.)

Building prioritizationEdit

Buildings' positioning can have great effect on return-on-investment. It is thus recommended to build the following building types in the appropriate provinces:

  • Buildings providing a percentile bonus are best built in state provinces with high   development values, low   local autonomy, and targeted to increase the province's strength(s), e.g., trade buildings in provinces with modifiers benefiting   local trade power (such as   centers of trade).
  • Buildings providing a flat bonus are best built in territorial provinces as they won't be affected by the high autonomy, or in state provinces with low   development values.
  • Manufactories increase   local goods produced, which in turn also increase both the province   trade value and its production income. In addition, coupling them with production buildings in state provinces with high value trade goods will generate high production income.
  • Manufactories are not affected by autonomy, culture, and religion as other buildings. Thus, they can be built even in high autonomy provinces. While the generated production income may not be at its fullest, they can still return the investment when also taking into account the generated   trade income.
  • Prioritize building forts in provinces with defensive terrain or those with low   supply limit to couple them with the   local defensiveness and high   attrition bonuses, and to make sure you get a terrain bonus to help break sieges. If possible, they should be built mostly in border provinces and mothballed until needed.
  • Other manufactory level buildings introduced in 1.30 may be more useful than increasing production. For example: Ramparts in a province with a fort improve its defensiveness; Soldiers' Houses greatly increase available manpower if built in Grain provinces, likewise Impressment Offices in Fish provinces, both being trade goods of low value.


Since buildings cost money, their cost-benefit ratio should be considered. Thus, an important step is to know when not to invest in a building type:

  • Trade buildings are unnecessary in trade nodes dominated by the nation, and you don't need more trade power propagated upstream.
  • Army/Navy buildings can be avoided if the nation maintains large forces and there are no nations of similar or stronger power.
  • Due to forts' initial high cost and ongoing   fort maintenance, it's best to avoid building them in the inner provinces of the nation where they are far from enemy borders and forces. If the area is prone to rebellions, several low level forts might be more successful in slowing the rebels down until other forces arrive.

Destroying buildingsEdit

Occasionally it is beneficial to destroy a building:

  • Excess forts cost money to maintain even when mothballed. Forts that aren't strategically useful - those in the interior if the enemy never reaches it, or multiple forts in a small space after annexing several small countries, for example - can be worth destroying.
  • Occasionally a building other than a fort was useful when built, but becomes a waste of a slot due to changing circumstances.
  • when annexing an AI, it could be worth to destroy some non-useful buildings (such as church in low tax income province) to build better one (like manufactories).

Is borrow-to-build worthwhile?Edit

Is it worthwhile to take out loans in order to construct a certain building? Equivalently, if there is an on-going loan, should the loan be paid off first before initiating on any construction project? Just like in real life, theoretically, the answer is yes if the income provided by the building per year divided by the sum of build cost and interest accrued during construction is higher than interest per annum. This can be the case for highly developed provinces or for manufactories in a highly productive province that produces expensive trade goods. (For manufactories, the player should also include trade income.) However, the player would also need to make sure there is enough income to pay off the loan before inflation gets out of hand. A player considering using debt to build, however, is cautioned to carefully consider these trade-offs, for in many cases, it is not profitable. A safe guide is whether the income before constructing the building is able to cover the principal part of the loan within a reasonable time frame.

However, if you have a mission to build a basic structure that offers +1 development, then it is definitely worth it because each dev upgrade is about 50 monarch points and that is similar to 50 ducats in comparison.

When will increased income cover building costs?Edit

The increase in income is dynamically influenced by provincial and national modifiers such as tax efficiency, production efficiency as well as the development in the province, all of which are bound to increase as technology progresses. Therefore, early game, whether a building will pay for itself is not usually the question. The question is how long and thus if the ducat can be better spent elsewhere. The following table lists the required increase in monthly income (displayed in-game in the building interface) for a certain number of years before the building breaks even.

Building capitalization timetable (assuming no share in trade)
build price 100   200   300   400   500  
Years before break-even Required monthly income increase  
5 1.67 3.33 5.00 6.67 8.33
10 0.83 1.67 2.50 3.33 4.17
20 0.42 0.83 1.12 1.67 2.08
50 0.17 0.33 0.50 0.67 0.83
100 0.08 0.17 0.25 0.33 0.42

The benefits of manufactories are two-fold: one is through local production; another is through trade collection. Trade collection is influenced by multiple factors: price of trade good, trade company bonus, player's share in trade power where the goods value is collected, and whether there is any transferring bonus (if collected in a downstream trade center). Assuming no trade company and 100% share in trade, the required increase in monthly income (displayed in-game in the building interface) for a certain number of years before the building breaks even is listed as follows.

Manufactory capitalization timetable at  100% goods produced modifier,  100% trade share and  0% trade efficiency
Price of trade good 5.0   4.0   3.5   3.0   2.5   2.0  
Years before break-even Required monthly income increase  
5 7.92 8.00 8.04 8.08 8.13 8.17
10 3.75 3.83 3.88 3.92 3.96 4.00
20 1.67 1.75 1.79 1.83 1.88 1.92
50 0.42 0.50 0.54 0.58 0.63 0.67
100 0 0.08 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.25

The required income is higher for a given schedule if the player cannot fully collect on the value of the trade goods. At the same time, any trade efficiency bonus reduces the required monthly income increase or bring closer the time the building breaks even.

Manufactory capitalization timetable at  100% goods produced modifier,  50% trade share and  0% trade efficiency
Price of trade good 5.0   4.0   3.5   3.0   2.5   2.0  
Years before break-even Required monthly income increase  
5 8.13 8.17 8.19 8.21 8.23 8.25
10 3.96 4.00 4.02 4.04 4.06 4.08
20 1.88 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 2.00
50 0.63 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.75
100 0.21 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.33
Manufactory capitalization timetable at  100% goods produced modifier,  100% trade share and  75% trade efficiency
Price of trade good 5.0   4.0   3.5   3.0   2.5   2.0  
Years before break-even Required monthly income increase  
5 7.60 7.75 7.82 7.90 7.97 8.04
10 3.44 3.58 3.66 3.73 3.80 3.88
20 1.35 1.50 1.57 1.65 1.72 1.79
50 0.10 0.25 0.32 0.40 0.47 0.54
100 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.13

As with other buildings, the increase in income from manufactories also scales with game progress although with the added sensitivity to the price of trade goods. Certain trade goods decrease in value late in the game. See Trade goods strategy.


  1. Specified in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua.
  2. Specified in /Europa Universalis IV/map/terrain.txt and /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt respectively.
  3. Note that this is a country-wide modifier.
  4. Palisades are counted as an actual fort by the game. It provides a zone of control in settled provinces and   yearly army tradition, which is required for spawning a certain event
  5. Forum, ROI on Buildings (spreadsheet), 2017-02-05

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Innovativeness and Technology InnovativenessTechnology