From Europa Universalis 4 Wiki
Revision as of 13:56, 21 October 2014 by KaTiON (talk | contribs) (Section versioning)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page deals with the recruitment and maintenance of armies. For combat mechanics see land warfare. For the individual unit types see land units.

An army refers to a country's land forces.

The basic unit of land forces is the regiment, each consisting of 1000 soldiers at full strength. Each regiment is classed as Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery. Regiments are grouped into troops. Each troop can be led by a general or conquistador.

Recruiting an army

Recruiting regular forces requires an owned, unoccupied province to recruit in, and three resources: Manpower.pngmanpower, Gold Icon.pngducats, and Time Icon.pngtime. Each province can recruit one regiment at a time, though multiple regiments can be queued up in a single province. The base cost and time of a regiment depends on its type; this is then adjusted by any modifiers, in particular any buildings the province might have. Regiments start with 50% of maximum morale.


Main article: manpower

It takes 1000 manpower to recruit a regiment. Manpower is also used for reinforcements.

Regiment cost.pngRegiment cost

Regiment cost is computed as follows:

regiment cost = base cost * (100% + Σ regiment cost modifiers)

Note: The costs are affected by inflation.

Base cost

The base cost for recruiting a regiment are:

10Gold Icon.png for infantry[1]
25Gold Icon.png for cavalry[2]
30Gold Icon.png for artillery[3]

Regiment cost modifiers

Regiment cost can be affected by general and type-specific modifiers which are summed.

General modifiers

General modifiers reduce the cost of all types of land units.

Ideas and policies:

Regiment cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Chernihiv traditions
  • Kikuchi traditions
  • Quantity idea 3: Enforced Service
  • Armenian idea 5: Sygnakhs
  • Colonial idea 5: Colonial Militia
  • Polish idea 5: Wojsko Komputowe
  • Lur ambition
  • Toki ambition
  • Expansion-Defensive: Local Army Organization
  • Plutocratic-Trade: Trade Kontor Network

Additional modifiers:

−5% for trading in Iron.png iron

Additional provincial modifiers:

−20% for having a 28px Treasuary
Type-specific modifiers

Type specific modifiers reduce only the cost of one unit type.

  • Infantry

Ideas and policies:

Infantry cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Berg traditions
  • Mewari traditions
  • Imerina idea 7: Foloalindahy
  • Maratha idea 3: Peasant Soldiers
  • Burmese idea 7: Bayingyi
  • Georgian ambition
  • Ava traditions
  • Butua traditions
  • Guarani traditions
  • Jaunpuri traditions
  • Lorraine traditions
  • Malvi traditions
  • Maravi traditions
  • Nivernais traditions
  • Polotskian traditions
  • Sistani traditions
  • Somali traditions
  • Arawak idea 1: Warrior Culture
  • Bulgarian idea 4: Reform The Army
  • Interlacustrine idea 5: Emitwe
  • Kongolese idea 4: Initiation Rites
  • Montenegrin idea 3: Clan Society
  • Odoyev idea 5: Cities of the Upper Oka Valley
  • Piratical idea 3: Buccaneers
  • Romanian idea 5: Peasant Soldiers
  • Slovak idea 5: Town Air Liberates
  • Teutonic idea 1: Reform the Army
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 3: Reform Boyars
  • Zaporozhian idea 6: Army First
  • Baden ambition
  • Tupi ambition
  • Cavalry

Ideas and policies:

Cavalry cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Aq Qoyunlu idea 2: Unite the Clans
  • Ilkhanid traditions
  • French ducal traditions
  • Fulani traditions
  • Hejazi traditions
  • Indian Sultanate traditions
  • Khivan traditions
  • Polish traditions
  • Takeda traditions
  • Transoxianian traditions
  • Aristocratic idea 1: Noble Knights
  • Al-Haasa idea 1: Desert Warfare
  • Arabian idea 2: Arabian Horses
  • Beloozero idea 1: Martial Heritage
  • Charruan idea 4: Horse Adoption
  • Circassian idea 1: Horsemen of the Steppe
  • Couronian idea 7: Promote the Curonian Kings
  • Mazovian idea 4: Szlachta Zasciankowa
  • Nanbu idea 2: Owner of the 'Nine Gates'
  • Odoyev idea 3: Commit to Tatar Ties
  • Oirat idea 1: Fearsome Warriors of Tumu
  • Permian idea 2: Turkic Mercenaries
  • Punjabi idea 6: Strength of the Misls
  • Ryazan idea 2: Tatar Mercenaries
  • Samtskhe idea 6: Frontier Warriors
  • Serbian idea 3: Home of the Hussars
  • Shiba idea 5: Oshu Ties
  • Swedish idea 3: The 'Hakkapeliitta'
  • Teutonic idea 1: Reform the Army
  • West African idea 5: Royal Stables
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 3: Reform Boyars
  • Zaporozhian idea 6: Army First
  • Aristocratic-Economic: The Court of Wards and Liveries
  • Mahri idea 5: Mahra Camels
  • Artillery

No modifiers.

Regiment recruit speed.pngRecruitment time

The recruitment time of a regiment is computed as follows:

recruitment time = base time * (100% + Σ recruitment time modifiers)

Base time

The base cost for recruiting a regiment are:

60 days for infantry[4]
90 days for cavalry[5]
120 days for artillery[6]

Recruitment time modifiers

Recruitment time can be affected by countrywide and provincial modifiers which are summed.

Countrywide modifiers

These ideas and policies speed up recruitment time of land units:

Recruitment time.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Cornish traditions
  • Offensive idea 2: National Conscripts
  • Aymaran idea 7: Ayni Duties
  • Prussian idea 6: Regimental Cantons
  • Tarascan idea 4: War Bonfires
  • Lunda idea 4: An Army Overnight

Additional modifiers:

−10% for trading in Copper.png iron
+10% for each point of Icon war exhaustion.png war exhaustion
Provincial modifiers
+100% for overseas provinces
+20% for blockaded provinces
+30% for looted provinces
+10% for each point National unrest.png revolt risk
−1% for each ducat provincial tax income
−5% for having an 28px armory
−5% for having a Latin training fields.png training fields
−25% for having an 28px arsenal


See also: Battlefield unit deployment logic

To maximize the combat effectiveness of an army, the mix of troops is of vital importance.

  • To not gain the insufficient support penalty, an army mix must not surpass a maximum ratio of cavalry per infantry regiments.
  • Artillery can fire from the second line, and therefore can vastly increase the effectiveness of an army.
  • The number of artillery is dependent on the combat width. If there is as much artillery as the combat width, the maximum amount of artillery can be used while at the same time protecting the artillery from attacks.
  • Since artillery takes double damage when in front line, it should only be deployed in second line. To achieve this, the number of artillery should not exceed the number of cavalry and infantry combined. Also reserves should be calculated to replace lost regiments in first line.
  • Artillery defends first line units from attacks with half of its defense points in the corresponding battle phase.
  • When optimizing army composition, troop cost has to be factored in as well. If you are not able to finance the optimal mix, other combinations that are feasible have to be chosen. With artillery being three times, cavalry two-and-a-half times more costly than infantry, a more infantry heavy but cheaper army could be more efficient. Eight infantry may very well beat three infantry + two cavalry due to the flanking effect.
  • The supply limit in the provinces is also essential. Having a 40 regiment army in a province with only 30 supply limit will cause massive attrition - a smaller army is more optimal then.

Example army relying on above information: (On plain terrain, with 11 combat width from technology and 15 base, 50% insufficient support limit)

  • combat width is 26, so 26 artillery
  • 26 for front line, split into 60% inf and 40% cav: 16 infantry and 10 cavalry
  • Calculate +50% reserves for the first row, so that artillery will be protected: 24 infantry, 15 cavalry, 26 artillery.
Battle line.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png

+ 8 infantry, 5 cavalry reserves potentially not fielded if combat width too small

Alternatively, it has been suggested in the paradox forums that a more optimal army mix would consist of mainly infantry and artillery, with much fewer cavalry only for flanking.

For example:

  • Early game: 8 infantry, 2 cavalry, 5 artillery
Battle line.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter NUL.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter CAV.png
  • Mid game: 18 infantry, 2 cavalry, 10 artillery
Battle line.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter NUL.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
  • Late game: 36 infantry, 4 cavalry, 20 artillery
Battle line.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter ART.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter INF.png
Battle counter CAV.png
Battle counter CAV.png

NB - Many early game scenarios lack artillery. In that case, try keeping about half the number of cavalry as you have infantry. Example would be 10 infantry plus 5 cavalry per 'army'. This force ratio is stronger than infantry alone, cheaper than a 50-50 mix. Infantry will likely bear the brunt of combat losses, so if you had equal infantry and cavalry, you would quickly be into the 'insufficient support' penalty. Pay attention to the 'supply limit' of nearby provinces as you choose optimal size for your armies (supply limit will normally increase as the game progresses, and declines in bad weather). You'll sustain fewer losses with 2:1 numerical superiority in any combat encounter. That may require exceeding the supply limit temporarily, especially if your forces are technologically inferior. By splitting your forces, you may be able to entice your enemy into an unequal contest without exceeding supply limits.

  • It has also been suggested in the paradox forums, that an effective method to defend against much larger armies in mountains, is to create armies of 8 infantry and 8 artillery without cavalry, because you will not flank. (This seems to refer to a combat width of (base 15 + 10 tech) - 66% mountain modifier).
  • It is still unclear which factors determine the optimal amount of cavalry. Please see discussion page for more information.
  • In the early game and for many non western nations late in the game, cavalry will far exceed the damage output of infantry. Until the advent of mass firearms you should always aim to keep as many cavalry as possible in your armies.


An army needs a certain amount of money each month as maintenance. These cost can be influenced by the army maintenance slider of the economy interface. Reducing the maintenance slider can (multiplicatively) reduce maintenance cost by up to half, but reduces reinforcement rates and morale. At 0% funding, regiments will not reinforce, and maximum morale will be reduced by 100% (additive with other percentage modifiers) to a minimum of 0.51 (the minimum required for an army to move).

Land maintenance modifier.png Regiment maintenance cost

The maintenance cost (at a full maintenance slider) of a regiment is computed as follows:

regiment maintenance cost per month = 0.02 * recruitment cost * (100% + Σ land maintenance cost modifiers)

Any modifier that affects the cost of creating new regiments (at the time of recruitment) also affects the maintenance of units.

Note: Each level of military technology applies a +2.5% land maintenance modifier, which stacks additively with other maintenance modifiers.

Maintenance cost modifiers

These ideas and policies reduce land maintenance cost:

Land maintenance modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Mantuan traditions
  • Amago traditions
  • Golden Horde traditions
  • Lüneburger traditions
  • Manchu traditions
  • Munster traditions
  • Defensive idea 4: Regimental System
  • Economic idea 6: Nationalistic Enthusiasm
  • Quantity idea 4: The Old and Infirm
  • Chosokabe idea 1: Ichiryo Gusoku
  • Hanoverian idea 3: Schützenfest
  • Horde idea 3: Horse Supplies
  • Moroccan idea 6: Slave Soldiers
  • Najdi idea 6: Unite the Tribes
  • Nuremberger idea 2: Nuremberg Castle
  • Aq Qoyunlu ambition
  • Arawak ambition
  • Brunswicker ambition
  • Chagatai ambition
  • Mongolian ambition
  • Nubian ambition
  • Scottish ambition
  • Tyrconnell ambition
  • Administrative-Quantity: Provincial Taxation System

Additional modifiers:

+2.5% for each level of Military tech.png military technology[7]
−10% for having a Advisor Grand Captain.png grand captain as advisor
−10% for having a 28px grain depot in one of the provinces
−20% for raising war taxes for up to two years
−10% for trading in Salt.pngsalt
−50% for having a native council government
−0.5% for each percentage point of liberty desire as colonial nation
−10% for having the Aristocrats influence.png aristocrats faction in power as merchant republic (only with Res Publica.png Res Publica)

Total maintenance cost

See also: Force limit

The total maintenance cost of an army depends on the land forcelimit of a country.

Define the land force limit ratio as

land force limit ratio = number of land units / land force limit

If a country has more land units than its land force limit, maintenance for those units will be multiplied by land force limit ratio. For example, if a country has 10 regiments on a land force limit of 5, land force limit ratio being 2, the maintenance for each land unit is doubled.

total maintenance cost per month = Σ regiment maintenance cost per month * max(land force limit ratio, 1)

Quality idea group.pngQuality

While quantity is an important factor in warfare, quality could be considered even more crucial in the grand scheme of things. An army outnumbered by 10,000 men can find victory in better discipline and morale, and as an opponent of war-orientated European continentals such as France and Prussia, you will most probably experience the effects these high-quality armies have at some point in your games.

Several idea groups can be taken to progressively improve your armies' performance on the battlefield. Additionally, some countries get specific bonuses resembling the strength their army had in actual history.

General improvements

  • Choosing the right land units: as your military technology improves, you will unlock new unit types. You should make a conscious effort to re-role your troops whenever you have the option to upgrade them.

Icon shock.pngIcon fire.png Combat ability improvements

Combat ability is a value that is multiplied with your units' damage dealt (both for casualties and morale), so it works like discipline, but only for the specified type of unit while discipline affects infantry, cavalry and artillery alike.

Infantry combat ability

Infantry combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Swedish traditions
  • Prussian idea 5: The Goose Step
  • Imperial German traditions
  • Dalmatian idea 5: Dalmatian Independent Army
  • Great Shun idea 6: From Sticks to Guns
  • Hindustani idea 1: Sepahi
  • Italian (cU) idea 2: The Tradition of the Legion
  • Bulgarian ambition
  • Japanese ambition
  • Three Leagues ambition
  • Ashanti traditions
  • Aztec traditions
  • Beloozero traditions
  • Bengal Sultanate traditions
  • Bengali traditions
  • Chosokabe tradition
  • Date traditions
  • English traditions
  • Georgian traditions
  • German traditions
  • Gujarat Sultanate traditions
  • Hosokawa traditions
  • Iroquois traditions
  • Lotharingian traditions
  • Lur traditions
  • Malvi traditions
  • Mewari traditions
  • Milanese traditions
  • Mindanao traditions
  • Mushasha traditions
  • Oda traditions
  • Québécois traditions
  • Rassid traditions
  • Saluzzo traditions
  • Shimazu traditions
  • Slovak traditions
  • Songhai traditions
  • Swiss traditions
  • Tokugawa traditions
  • Tripuran traditions
  • Tyrone traditions
  • Veronese traditions
  • Vijayanagar traditions
  • Yemeni traditions
  • Zambezi traditions
  • Quality idea 1: Private to Marshal
  • Ainu idea 7: Fierce Resistance
  • Amago idea 2: Izumo Shugo
  • Arawak idea 5: Arawak Raiders
  • Asakura idea 4: Asakura Soteki
  • Australian idea 4: The Diggers
  • Bohemian idea 3: Wagenburg
  • Brandenburg idea 1: Northern March
  • Brazilian idea 4: Halting Foreign Incursions
  • Butua idea 3: Empowering the Rozwi
  • Carib idea 2: Poisonous Warfare
  • Caspian idea 2: A Time of Turmoil
  • Chickasaw idea 2: Spartans of the Lower Mississippi
  • Chinese idea 5: Firearm Training
  • Croatian idea 7: Pandurs
  • Dai Viet idea 1: The Great Proclamation
  • Deccani Sultanate idea 4: Purchase Habshis
  • Dithmarscher idea 1: Resistance to Feudalism
  • Ethiopian idea 7: Reformed Armies
  • French ducal idea 3: Qui Ruit Et Lethum
  • Galician idea 7: Irmandinos
  • Garjati idea 5: Jungle Warfare
  • Gond idea 5: Raiding the Lowlands
  • Greek idea 3: Klephtic Recruitment
  • Guarani idea 7: Royal Armaments
  • Interlacustrine idea 6: Unity of the Clans
  • Jaunpuri idea 7: Modernization of the Army
  • Laotian idea 5: Laotian Elephant Cavalry
  • Leonese idea 7: Leonese Nationalism
  • Maravi idea 5: Serving Abroad
  • Nepali idea 6: The Gurkhas
  • Orissan idea 1: Lord of the Elephants
  • Ormond idea 1: English Service
  • Polish idea 3: Piechota Wybraniecka
  • Roman idea 4: The Roman Legions
  • Sadiyan idea 6: Reform the Sadiya Armies
  • Satake idea 4: Kashima Jingu
  • Shiba idea 7: Mogami Family
  • Somali idea 4: Offensive Warfare
  • Tarascan idea 1: Copperworking
  • Teutonic idea 3: Adjust our Infantry Tactics
  • Tsutsui idea 1: Warrior Monks
  • Tupi idea 3: It Is A Good Day To Die
  • Tverian idea 6: Tverian Tercio
  • Deccani ambition
  • Imerina ambition
  • Indian Sultanate ambition
  • Korean ambition
  • Malian ambition
  • Mantuan ambition
  • Mayan ambition
  • Montenegrin ambition
  • Nepalese Princedom ambition
  • Nivernais ambition
  • Polotskian ambition
  • Sistani ambition
  • Serbian ambition
  • Uesugi ambition
  • Athenian idea 7: Athenian Army Reform
  • Kongo idea 5: The Triangle Trade
  • Ryazan idea 5: March of Russia
  • Tunisian idea 1: Catalan Guard
  • Innovative-Quality: Modern Firearm Techniques

Cavalry combat ability

Cavalry combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Polish idea 4: Winged Hussars
  • Aq Qoyunlu traditions
  • Chagatai traditions
  • Great Yuan traditions
  • Hungarian traditions
  • Ilkhanid traditions
  • Mughal traditions
  • Oirat traditions
  • Qara Qoyunlu traditions
  • Burmese idea 2: Elephant Warfare
  • Crimean idea 1: Genghisid Legacy
  • Golden Horde idea 3: Tatar Traditions
  • Horde idea 2: Traditions of the Great Khan
  • Kazani idea 3: Warrior Society
  • Lithuanian idea 5: Lithuanian Hussars
  • Mongolian idea 1: Ghostly Horses of the Plain
  • Transoxianian idea 1: Mawarannahr, the land Beyond the River
  • Delhian traditions
  • Khorasani traditions
  • Persian traditions
  • Afghan idea 5: Durrani Imperialism
  • Anatolian idea 3: Akîncî Cavalry
  • Ansbach idea 7: Dragoons of Ansbach
  • Ardabili idea 2: The Qizilbash
  • Bharathi idea 1: Modernized War Elephant Tactics
  • Chernihiv idea 2: Field Cossack Regiments
  • Couronian idea 7: Promote the Curonian Kings
  • Epirote idea 5: Latin Knights
  • Finnish idea 2: The Hakkapeliitta
  • Karamanid idea 3: Karamanid Cavalry
  • Khivan idea 1: Horde Legacy
  • Manchu idea 5: Link with the Mongol Dynasty
  • Maratha idea 1: Tradition of Military Service
  • Ottoman idea 3: Timar System
  • Rajput idea 3: Marwari Horses
  • Rajputana idea 3: Marwari Horses
  • Ruthenian idea 3: Zaporozhian Cossacks
  • Serbian idea 4: Alemannic Guard
  • Shirvani idea 3: Tribesmen of the Caucasus
  • Transylvanian idea 1: Unio Trium Nationum
  • Ava ambition
  • Hejazi ambition
  • Al-Haasa traditions
  • Bahmani traditions
  • Bavarian traditions
  • Croatian traditions
  • Deccani Sultanate traditions
  • Indian Sultanate traditions
  • Mamluk traditions
  • Mazovian traditions
  • Mossi traditions
  • Northumbrian traditions
  • Takeda traditions
  • Teutonic traditions
  • Aristocratic idea 1: Noble Knights
  • Quality idea 3: Finest of Horses
  • Ayyubid idea 4: Elite Warriors
  • Berber idea 5: Tuareg Cavalry
  • Caucasian idea 7: Cavalry Armies
  • Franconian idea 4: Free Imperial Knights of Franconia
  • Gujarati Princedom idea 1: Kathiawari Horses
  • Kildarean idea 5: Curragh Horsemanship
  • Lan Xang idea 2: Elephant Cavalry
  • Moroccan idea 6: Slave Soldiers
  • Nubian idea 6: Desert Cavalry
  • Sukhothai idea 7: War Elephants
  • Vijayanagar idea 2: Arab Horses
  • Wurzburgian idea 3: Franconian Circle
  • Charruan ambition
  • Punjabi ambition
  • Vindhyan ambition
  • Aristocratic-Espionage: Noble Loyalty Act
  • Circassian idea 1: Horsemen of the Steppe
  • Ogasawara idea 3: Kiso-uma

Artillery combat ability

Artillery combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Quality idea 7: Massed Battery
  • Bharathi idea 7: Develop Rocket Technology
  • Ferraran idea 3: Alfonso I's Reforms
  • Portuguese idea 7: Royal Academy of Fortification, Artillery and Drawing
  • Russian idea 3: Russian Artillery Yard
  • Smolenskian idea 6: Artillery Before All
  • Otomo ambition
  • Satake ambition
  • Offensive-Economic: Horse Artillery
  • Athenian idea 7: Athenian Army Reform

Morale of armies.png Morale improvements

Army morale

Morale of armies.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • French idea 2: Elan!
  • Prussian idea 3: Army Professionalism
  • Andalusian traditions
  • Cascadian traditions
  • Castilian traditions
  • Nagpuri traditions
  • Spanish traditions
  • Defensive idea 2: Military Drill
  • Air idea 2: Cross of Agades
  • Great Qing idea 7: The Ten Great Campaigns
  • Highlander idea 1: The Wallace
  • Holy Roman idea 2: Kaiserliche Armee
  • Kiwi idea 6: Rejecting the Australia Constitution
  • Lotharingian idea 2: Glory of Charlemagne
  • Orleanaise idea 2: The Maid of Orleans
  • Polish idea 7: Focus on Field Defenses
  • Vermont idea 1: Home of the American Revolution
  • Veronese idea 4: Civil Blood and Civil Hands
  • Manchu ambition
  • Swabian ambition
  • Texan ambition
  • Anhalt traditions
  • Aq Qoyunlu traditions
  • Austrian traditions
  • Ava traditions
  • Beninese traditions
  • Burgundian traditions
  • Butua traditions
  • Chernihiv traditions
  • Client State traditions
  • Corsican traditions
  • Dalmatian traditions
  • Deccani traditions
  • Dhundhari traditions
  • Dithmarscher traditions
  • Gond traditions
  • Hatakeyama traditions
  • Hojo traditions
  • Huron traditions
  • Irish traditions
  • Jurchen traditions
  • Khorasani traditions
  • Liège traditions
  • Moldavian traditions
  • Mysorean traditions
  • Nepalese Princedom traditions
  • Oda traditions
  • Ogasawara traditions
  • Pacific Northwest traditions
  • Persian traditions
  • Pomeranian traditions
  • Provençal traditions
  • Pueblo ambition
  • Punjabi traditions
  • Rajputana traditions
  • Rothenburg traditions
  • Rûmi traditions
  • Sicilian traditions
  • Transoxianian traditions
  • Trent traditions
  • Tsutsui traditions
  • Welsh traditions
  • Plutocratic idea 2: Abolished Serfdom
  • Ajami idea 3: Legacy of the Ilkhans
  • Amago idea 4: Ten Brave Warriors
  • American idea 4: Lessons of Valley Forge
  • Aragonese idea 7: Protect the Little Folk
  • Ardabili idea 1: The Safavid Order
  • Aymaran idea 5: The Tinku Rites
  • Ayyubid idea 3: Righteousness of the Faith
  • Aztec idea 4: Eagles and Jaguars
  • Bolognese idea 1: Etruscan Origins
  • Brandenburg idea 4: Pomeranian Wars
  • Bulgarian idea 6: Military Flexibility
  • Carib idea 3: Resistance towards the Pailanti'po
  • Catalan idea 6: 'Lliures o Morts'
  • Cebu idea 1: Lumaya’s Ambition
  • Chachapoyan idea 1: Warriors of the Clouds
  • Charruan idea 6: Garra Charrua
  • Cherokee idea 5: Ghigau
  • Chiba idea 2: Dream of Masakado
  • Creek idea 7: Red Sticks
  • Daimyo idea 4: The Five Rings
  • Desmondian idea 3: Gaelic Bastion
  • Finnish idea 7: The Anjala Conspiracy
  • French ducal idea 7: La Petite Nation
  • Frisian idea 3: Dutch Courage
  • Fulani Jihad idea 4: Imans and Emirs
  • Galician idea 5: Santiago y Cierra!
  • Garhwali idea 3: Martial Diplomacy
  • Gelre idea 5: The Gelderland Wars
  • Genevan idea 7: Armed Neutrality
  • Goslar idea 6: Resisting the Welfs
  • Great Shun idea 4: Obedient to Heaven
  • Great Yuan idea 2: A Savage Kingdom Holy and Enchanted
  • Herzegovinian idea 3: Stjepan's Rebellion
  • Imerina idea 2: The Twelve Sampys of Imerina
  • Ionian idea 1: Frankokratia
  • Kangra idea 3: Martial Heritage
  • Khmer idea 1: Preah Ko Preah Keo
  • Kikuchi idea 4: Fortify the Domain
  • Kildarean idea 3: Silken Thomas
  • Krakowian idea 1: Legendary Legacy
  • K'iche idea 6: K'iq'ab's Vengeance
  • Luban idea 4: Encourage the Kasala Tradition
  • Lur idea 6: Rise of the Lurs
  • Lüneburger idea 7: Lionhearted
  • Mainzian idea 3: Weck, Worscht & Woi
  • Manipur idea 2: Martial Traditions
  • Mayan idea 7: Caste War
  • Medri Bahri idea 5: Independent Traditions
  • Mexican idea 7: Grito de Delores
  • Miao idea 3: Unity of the Tribes
  • Mindanao idea 6: Guerrilla Warfare
  • Muscovite idea 4: Pomestnoe Voisko
  • Mushasha idea 1: Fervent Millenarianism
  • Nanbu idea 1: Genji in the North
  • Native idea 1: Counting Coups
  • Neapolitan idea 4: Crush the Power of the Barons
  • Nepali idea 5: The Royal Kumari
  • Nivernais idea 4: True Frenchmen
  • Pegu idea 4: Ramannadesa
  • Perugian idea 6: The War of the Eight Saints
  • Rassid idea 1: The Living Imam
  • Sadiyan idea 1: Land of Glory
  • Saluzzo idea 3: Marquisate
  • Samtskhe idea 4: Independent Ambitions
  • Sardinian idea 1: From the Judicate
  • Semien idea 1: Legacy of Queen Judith
  • Serbian idea 7: Balkan Hajduks
  • Shiba idea 4: Atsuta Shrine
  • Shimazu idea 1: Satsuma Hayato
  • Shoni idea 2: Defender of Japan
  • Slovak idea 7: Slovak National Awakening
  • Songhai idea 3: Jihad Against the Pagans
  • Takeda idea 1: Leader of Kai Genji
  • Three Leagues idea 4: The League of Ten
  • Timurid idea 2: The Mantle of the Great Khan
  • Tokugawa idea 1: Mikawa Bushi
  • Trebizondian idea 5: The Lessons of the Fourth Crusade
  • Uesugi idea 4: Dragon of Echigo
  • Yarkandi idea 5: Holy Warriors
  • Yi idea 7: Children of the Black Tiger
  • Ajuuraan ambition
  • Athenian ambition
  • Circassian ambition
  • Colonial ambition
  • Cornish ambition
  • Dai Viet ambition
  • Frankfurter ambition
  • Kievan ambition
  • Kitabatake ambition
  • Ryazan ambition
  • Religious-Quantity: Field priests and Soldier's prayer books
  • Chagatai idea 2: Ceaseless Border Wars
  • Russian idea 7: Broaden the curriculum of the Cadet Corps
  • Quality-Religious: The Military Zeal Act

Recover army morale speed.png Morale recovery improvements

Army morale recovery

Recover army morale speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Quality-Administrative: The Liquor Act
  • Armenian traditions
  • Fulani traditions
  • Hungarian traditions
  • Montferrat traditions
  • Ryazan traditions
  • Pskovian idea 2: Legacy of Daumantas
  • Fully Offensive
  • Persian ambition
  • Expansion-Defensive: Local Army Organization
  • Religious-Quantity: Field priests and Soldier's prayer books

General.png General improvements

Land leader shock

Land leader shock.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Manchu traditions
  • Qara Qoyunlu traditions
  • Scottish traditions
  • Shirvani traditions
  • Timurid traditions
  • Offensive idea 1: Bayonet Leaders
  • Ajuuraan idea 6: Expelling the Infidel
  • Aq Qoyunlu idea 1: The White Sheep
  • Arawak idea 7: Jungle Warfare
  • Bengal Sultanate idea 5: Conquest of the Gangetic Plain
  • Charruan idea 3: Bolas Warfare
  • Chiba idea 5: Katori Jingu
  • Cilli idea 2: Mercenary Captains
  • Crimean idea 4: Despoilers
  • Epirote idea 1: Legacy of Pyrrhus
  • Hatakeyama idea 2: Indomitable Generals
  • Hojo idea 2: Night Combat
  • Horde idea 4: Steppe Leaders
  • Jerusalem idea 5: Crusader Aristocracy
  • Jurchen idea 3: Foreign Service
  • Lithuanian idea 1: Warlord Dukes
  • Mexican idea 6: Heroes of the Revolution
  • Mongolian idea 7: The Kheshig
  • Oda idea 3: Oda Generals
  • Rassid idea 6: Like Salt Dissolves in Water
  • Shan idea 5: Raiders
  • Shoni idea 5: Bear of Hizen
  • Tibetan idea 2: Bön Influence.
  • Tyrconnell idea 5: Lessons of Knockavoe
  • Wallachian idea 5: Legacy of the Impaler
  • Yamana idea 4: The Western Army
  • Air ambition
  • Arabian ambition
  • Oirat ambition
  • Swedish ambition
  • Humanist-Quantity: Inspirational Leaders

Land leader fire

Land leader fire.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Offensive idea 3: Superior Firepower
  • Great Ming idea 7: The Red Cannon
  • Rajput idea 6: Martial Ethos
  • Smolenskian idea 5: Hold The Line
  • Bohemian ambition
  • Mori ambition
  • Oda ambition
  • Qara Qoyunlu ambition
  • Utsunomiya ambition
  • Expansion-Quality: The Mining Act

Land leader maneuver

Land leader maneuver.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Evenk idea 6: Love of the Forest
  • Shawnee ambition
  • Ainu traditions
  • Burmese traditions
  • Carib traditions
  • Crimean traditions
  • Herzegovinian traditions
  • Norman traditions
  • Ulmer traditions
  • Defensive idea 3: Improved Maneuver
  • Air idea 6: Nomadic Traditions
  • Albanian idea 2: Land of Ambushers
  • Arabian idea 6: Clan Loyalties
  • Caucasian idea 3: Hit and Run
  • Kazani idea 5: Steppe Warfare
  • Mongolian idea 6: Mongolian Mobility
  • Nagpuri idea 2: Exploit Harsh Terrain
  • Oirat idea 1: Fearsome Warriors of Tumu
  • Pacific Northwest idea 5: Legacy of Raven
  • Permian idea 5: Warriors of the Taiga
  • Qara Qoyunlu 4: Dynamic Warfare
  • Romanian idea 2: Skilled Commanders
  • Tapuian idea 5: The Way of the Jaguar
  • Tyrone idea 6: Ambush Warfare
  • Zaporozhian idea 4: Hit And Run
  • Lithuanian ambition
  • Quantity-Exploration: Hired Adventurers

Leader siege

Leader siege.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Nepali idea 7: Envelopment and Blockade
  • Oda idea 4: Influential Strongholds
  • Full Aristocracy
  • Cilli ambition
  • Meath ambition
  • Sonoran ambition
  • Urbinate ambition
  • Innovative-Offensive: Modern Siege Weapons

Discipline.png Discipline improvements

Discipline.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Anatolian traditions
  • Asakura traditions
  • Couronian traditions
  • Finnish traditions
  • Imagawa traditions
  • Japanese traditions
  • Knights Hospitaller traditions
  • Nanbu traditions
  • Ottoman traditions
  • Roman traditions
  • Romanian traditions
  • Shawnee traditions
  • Teutonic traditions
  • Three Leagues traditions
  • Wallachian traditions
  • Offensive idea 7: Esprit de Corps
  • Ando idea 6: True Shogun of Oshu
  • Bavarian idea 6: Found a Professional Army
  • Bharathi idea 4: Indian Army
  • Bregenzer idea 1: Lady of Bregenz
  • British idea 5: Reform of Commission Buying
  • Brunswicker idea 7: The Black Brunswickers
  • Burgundian idea 4: Reform of the Feudal Army
  • Butua idea 5: Regular Training
  • Byzantine idea 6: The New Imperial Army
  • Candarid idea 5: Legacy of the Candar Corps
  • Chosokabe idea 4: 100 Article Code
  • Colognian idea 7: Order of St. Michael
  • Dahomey idea 5: The Amazons
  • Daimyo idea 1: Bushido
  • Deccani idea 5: Modernize the Sarf-e-Khas
  • Divine idea 1: Holy Order
  • Epirote idea 7: Unity in Strength
  • Great Ming idea 2: Revive the Three Grand Divisions
  • Hessian idea 5: Modernization of the Hessian Army
  • Holy Roman idea 6: Adopting the Goosestep
  • Hungarian idea 3: Found the Black Army
  • Imperial German idea 3: Reichsheer
  • Irish idea 7: Nationalized Gallowglass Septs
  • Iroquois idea 6: Warriors Unity
  • Icelandic idea 5: The Men of Fire and Ice
  • Jerusalem idea 3: Frontier State
  • Kaffan idea 6: King of Kings
  • Kangra idea 7: Tigers of the Himalayas
  • Khmer idea 5: European Mercenaries
  • Kongo idea 7: Defend Against the Colonists
  • Malian idea 4: Mandinka Warrior Spirit
  • Mamluk idea 4: Reform of the Army
  • Mantuan idea 5: Soldiers for Protection
  • Mapuche idea 2: Clava Clubs
  • Mewari idea 7: Reorganized Rajput Regiments
  • Mughal idea 1: The Jagir and Mansabdari Systems
  • Munster idea 4: Spanish Ties
  • Münster idea 5: Soldiers of the Imperial Armies
  • Mutapan idea 1: Mwenemutapa
  • Oirat idea 6: Defiance of the Dzungars
  • Otomo idea 3: Loyal Retainers
  • Pacific Northwest idea 1: Great Whale Hunts
  • Persian idea 3: Found the Ghulams
  • Polish idea 6: Found the Foreign section
  • Punjabi idea 7: Reforming the Punjabi Army
  • Rigan idea 7: Restore the Brothers of the Sword
  • Rothenburg idea 5: The Drink of War
  • Rûmi idea 1: Abul-Fath
  • Sardinian idea 7: The Order of Saint Maurice
  • Saxon idea 7: The Saxon Circle
  • Shimazu idea 4: Tsurinobuse
  • Swedish idea 2: Swedish Steel
  • Tibetan idea 6: The Way of the Ancients
  • Tokugawa idea 3: Hatamoto
  • Uesugi idea 6: Agakita-shu
  • Vijayanagar idea 7: An Army for the City of Victory
  • Full Quality
  • Amago ambition
  • Ansbach ambition
  • Ayyubid ambition
  • Bamberger ambition
  • Bayreuther ambition
  • Carib ambition
  • Dortmund ambition
  • Franconian ambition
  • French ambition
  • Hanoverian ambition
  • Hindustani ambition
  • Karamanid ambition
  • Lüneburger ambition
  • Manx ambition
  • Mysorean ambition
  • Nepali ambition
  • Ogasawara ambition
  • Papal ambition
  • Prussian ambition
  • Rajput ambition
  • Rajputana ambition
  • Ruthenian ambition
  • Songhai ambition
  • Spanish ambition
  • Swiss ambition
  • Ambition of Theodoro
  • Timurid ambition
  • Trierian ambition
  • Tuscan ambition
  • Vermont ambition
  • Westphalian ambition
  • Yamana ambition
  • Economic-Quality: Weapon Quality Standards
  • Austrian idea 7: Hofkriegsrat
  • Sardinian-Piedmontese idea 4: Royal Sardinian Army
  • Incan idea 4: Drafted Hatun Runas
  • National idea 1: Preserve Our Troops
  • Norwegian idea 7: Write New Sagas

Army tradition

Main article: Military tradition#Army tradition

100 Army Tradition gives 100% of the following bonuses.

Attrition.pngSupply, attrition and reinforcement

Supply limit.pngSupply limit

Base supply limit depends on the following:

Source Supply limit
Base 6
Coastal +6
Per base tax +1.2
Earth Rampart building (Fort 2) +3
Star Fort building (Fort 3) +6
Tenaille building (Fort 4) +9
Star Bastion building (Fort 5) +12

This is then multiplied by Supply Limit efficiency. This starts at 100% and is modified by:

  • Either: [does this apply to allied troops as well?]
    • Having a core in the province: +10%
    • Being the owner of the province: +25%
  • Through military technology:
    • Military Technology (5): +50%
    • Military Technology (12): +50%
    • Military Technology (17): +50%
    • Military Technology (19): +50%
    • Military Technology (27): +50%
    • Military Technology (31): +50%

There are currently no ideas to alter this further, although the leader maneuver bonus can count in unless you had gotten a 6 star maneuver general anyway.

Climate and attrition

Climate map. Legend: temperate tropical arid arctic
Winter map. Legend: no winter mild winter normal winter severe winter mild monsoon normal monsoon severe monsoon

Each province has a climate and may experience winters of varying severity.

Attrition is calculated on the first day of each month, and whenever an army reaches its destination but does not immediately enter combat. If the combined number of troops (own, neutral and allied) surpasses the supply limit of a province, the armies will suffer attrition. This can happen even in owned provinces. The amount of attrition depends on the total size of all troops in that province.

Each regiment in an army has a supply weight of 1. The total supply weight of an army with a leader is reduced by 1 for every point of maneuver the leader has. Under normal circumstances, the amount of attrition is equal to the supply weight in excess of the province's supply limit, up to a maximum of 5%. Armies that are besieging hostile provinces take 1% attrition minimum, regardless of their size. An army trying to take back its own captured province does not suffer this penalty. For the duration of a battle, the armies engaged do not suffer attrition.

Scorched earth, climate and winter conditions can increase an army's supply weight and the maximum amount of attrition possible as detailed below:

Modifier Supply Weight
Max Attrition
Tropical Province +5 +5
Arctic Province +5 +1
Arid Province +2 +10
Mild Winter +2 +2%
Normal Winter +5 +5%
Severe Winter +10 +10%
Looted 0 +5%
Scorched Earth +5 +5%

For example, an army with 14 weight in a province with supply limit of 15 undergoing a severe winter would take 14 + 10 - 15 = 9% attrition.

The 7th idea of the Defensive Ideas group, Improved Foraging, reduces all attrition taken by friendly armies by 25%, applied multiplicatively. For example, an army under the supply limit with Improved Foraging besieging an enemy province takes 0.7% monthly attrition. It would make sense for the attrition to be 0.75% monthly, but the attrition display indicates 0.7%. The bonus for completing the Defensive Ideas group causes enemy troops to take 1% attrition on top of normal attrition values while in friendly territory.

Unique national ideas which affect own land attrition:

Land attrition.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Defensive idea 7: Improved Foraging
  • Humanist-Defensive: The Preparation Act
  • Quality-Exploration: Superior Supply Systems
  • Kongo traditions
  • Cascadian idea 7: The Oregon Trail
  • Horde idea 1: The Life of a Steppe Warrior
  • Mongolian idea 3: The Life of a Steppe Warrior
  • Oirat idea 2: The Life of a Steppe Warrior
  • Ainu traditions
  • Arabian traditions
  • Canadian traditions
  • Siberian traditions
  • Charruan idea 2: Legacy of the Pampas
  • Cossack idea 3: Steppe Riders
  • Dhundhari idea 7: Pindari Mercenaries
  • Zaporozhian idea 3: Steppe Riders
  • Ethiopian traditions
  • Khivan traditions
  • Kongolese traditions
  • Malian traditions
  • Pacific Northwest traditions
  • Quantity idea 7: Expanded Supply Trains
  • Australian idea 2: The Land Down Under
  • Aymaran idea 3: Chu'uqi Production
  • Burmese idea 6: Organized Military Campaigns
  • Chagatai idea 1: The Mountain Khanate
  • Clanricarde idea 5: To Hell or to Connacht
  • Evenk idea 1: Family Brigades
  • Hejazi idea 4: Desert Warfare
  • Incan idea 7: Tambo Waystations
  • Montferrat idea 3: The Italian Frontier
  • Sami idea 6: Living off the Land
  • Tapuian idea 1: Hunter Gatherers
  • Texan idea 4: Vaqueros
  • Venetian idea 7: Found the provveditori ai beni inculti
  • Chickasaw ambition
  • Jurchen ambition

Additionally, there are ideas that give a malus to attrition to enemies on your territory:

Attrition for enemies.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Brazilian traditions
  • Caucasian traditions
  • Dai Viet traditions
  • Evenk traditions
  • Garhwali traditions
  • Interlacustrine traditions
  • Icelandic traditions
  • Kangra traditions
  • Kongolese traditions
  • Leinster traditions
  • Luban traditions
  • Lunda traditions
  • Mapuche traditions
  • Montenegrin traditions
  • Northumbrian traditions
  • Offaly traditions
  • Ogasawara traditions
  • Polotskian traditions
  • Sadiyan traditions
  • Tripuran traditions
  • Tumbuka traditions
  • Welsh traditions
  • Afghan idea 7: Graveyard of Empires
  • Ainu idea 5: Hunters and Warriors
  • Assamese idea 3: River Warfare
  • Australian idea 2: The Land Down Under
  • Baluch idea 1: Natural Defenses
  • Beloozero idea 6: Boreal Warfare
  • Berber idea 2: Desert Warfare
  • Bosnian idea 7: Over the Hills and Through the Woods
  • Carib idea 4: Rainforests of the Guyana
  • Chachapoyan idea 7: Cloud Forests
  • Charruan idea 5: Resist Conquistadors
  • Chickasaw idea 3: Nighttime Raids
  • Cornish idea 2: Cornish Rebels
  • Divine idea 6: Turn the Other Cheek
  • Finnish idea 6: The White Death
  • Flemish idea 7: Noose-Bearers
  • Gond idea 3: Tigers and Elephants
  • Hadramhi idea 1: Death Has Come
  • Highlander idea 2: The Highland Clans
  • Jurchen idea 1: Sons of the Mountain
  • Khivan idea 2: Deserts of Khiva
  • Kuban idea 5: Ngesh Dancing
  • Kurdish idea 1: Mountain Warriors
  • Lusatian idea 1: Zittau Mountains
  • Luzon idea 2: Conquest of Paradise
  • Mayan idea 6: Remote Isolation
  • Miao idea 6: Mountain Retreats
  • Munster idea 3: Hill Raiders
  • Mushasha idea 3: Swamp Warfare
  • Najdi idea 4: Bedouin Raiders
  • Nubian idea 3: Warriors of the Sahara Desert
  • Romanian idea 3: Scorch the Lands and Poison the Wells
  • Sami idea 1: Land of the Midnight Sun
  • Shawnee idea 2: Dark and Bloody Ground
  • Siberian idea 1: Hunters of the North
  • Sinhalese idea 7: Sinhalese Guerrilla Warfare
  • Sulawesi idea 7: Asymmetrical Resistance
  • Tirhuti idea 5: Riverine Landscape
  • Tsutsui idea 4: Mountain Warfare
  • Ulster idea 4: Rapparees
  • Vindhyan idea 5: Untamed Lands
  • Yi idea 2: Deep in the Mountains
  • Fully Defensive
  • Armenian ambition
  • Moroccan ambition
  • Defensive-Religious: Edict of Resistance
  • Influence-Quantity: Guerilla Warfare
  • Chagatai idea 1: The Mountain Khanate
  • Trierian idea 4: Landesburgen

Reinforce speed.pngReinforcements

Armies which have taken casualties will gradually reinforce up to their full strength, provided there is available manpower. The number of reinforcements that each regiment can receive is

reinforcements per month = 100 * (army maintenance factor) * (local reinforcement rate) * (100% + global reinforcement speed modifier)
  • Army maintenance factor scales linearly with the position of your army maintenance slider. It is 0% if the slider is at the far left (50% army maintenance cost) and 100% if the slider is at the far right (100% army maintenance cost).
  • Local reinforcement rate is 100% in owned provinces, and 50% otherwise, be it a neutral, subject, ally, enemy, or occupied province. If the army has a leader, each point of maneuver will increase the local reinforcement rate by 10% additively up to a maximum of 100%, unless the province has other modifiers that limit reinforcement rates.
  • Global reinforcement speed modifier is the sum of any reinforcement speed bonuses from ideas, policies, or advisors.

All values above can be seen or deduced from the tooltip over each army's total soldier count.

Each reinforced soldier will cost half as much as a newly recruited soldier. This reinforcement cost is added to the regiment's listed maintenance value for that month.

Example: Consider a regiment of 1,000 infantrymen that costs 12 ducats to recruit and 0.3 ducats per month to maintain due to some combination of build cost, maintenance, and inflation modifiers. The cost of each newly recruited infantryman would then be 0.012 ducats, while the cost of each reinforced infantryman would be 0.006 ducats. If the regiment is reduced to 950 men after a battle and is able to receive 50 reinforcements that month to restore itself back to full strength, then its listed maintenance cost would be 0.3 * 0.95 + 0.006 * 50 = 0.585 per month.

There is no need to manually consolidate your regiments after a battle to save money. Dead soldiers do not earn a salary, and reinforced soldiers are always cheaper than newly recruited ones.

Reinforce speed can also be affected by the following:

Reinforce speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Defensive idea 6: Supply Trains
  • Austrian idea 7: Hofkriegsrat
  • Serbian traditions
  • Yaroslavlyian traditions
  • Yi idea 3: Chain of Zimo Domains
  • Tverian ambition
  • Quality-Administrative: The Liquor Act
  • Tupi traditions
  • Khivan ambition
  • Siberian idea 6: Successful Raids


Mercenary forces can serve as a supplement---or in extreme cases, a replacement---for a country's regular forces. Although they are only available in limited number at a time and are more expensive to maintain than regular forces, mercenaries are quick to recruit and do not cost any manpower to build or reinforce.

Differences from regular forces

  • Recruitment time x0.25.
  • This is a multiplier, not a -75% modifier.
  • No manpower cost to recruit or reinforce.
  • No war exhaustion from combat and attrition casualties.

Mercenary manpower.png Available mercenaries

  • Mercenaries can only be recruited from a mercenary pool.
  • Mercenaries appear in the pool every month up to a base maximum of 12, modified by "Available Mercenaries."
  • Other than this limit, mercenaries can be recruited in any controlled province (including occupied territory), unlike regular forces which require cored ownership.

Mercenary manpower.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
The modifier “available mercenaries” was replaced by “mercenary manpower” with patch 1.30.

Mercenary cost.png Mercenary recruitment cost

Mercenary recruitment cost is computed as follows:

 mercenary recruitment cost = base regiment cost * (100% + 50% for being mercenary + 1% per mercenary regiment + other mercenary cost modifiers)

  • base regiment cost : infantry 10, cavalry 25, artillery 30
  • Mercenary cost can be affected by the following:
Mercenary cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Administrative idea 1: Organized Mercenary Payments
  • +50% modifier to recruitment costs, with an additional +1% per mercenary regiment currently existing or being recruited.
  • Recruitment cost of mercenaries is affected by mercenary cost modifiers but is not affected by regiment cost modifiers.
  • Unlike regular units, this mercenary recruitment cost does not affect actual mercenary maintenance cost.

Mercenary maintenance.png Mercenary maintenance cost

All troops require money every month to upkeep. The cost (at a full maintenance slider) is computed as follows:

 regular maintenance cost per month = 0.02 * base regiment cost * (100% + regiment cost modifiers) * (100% + land maintenance cost modifiers)
 mercenary maintenance cost per month= regular maintenance cost per month* (100% + 150% for being mercenary + other mercenary maintenance modifiers)

  • +150% modifier to mercenary maintenance.
  • This is affected by mercenary maintenance modifiers.
  • This stacks multiplicatively with land maintenance cost modifiers.
  • This is computed off the regular recruitment cost, not the mercenary recruitment cost.

  • Mercenary maintenance cost can be affected by the following:
Mercenary maintenance.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Ansbach traditions
  • Bayreuther traditions
  • Caspian traditions
  • Dortmund traditions
  • German traditions
  • Luccan traditions
  • Malabari traditions
  • Novgorodian traditions
  • Sienese traditions
  • Swedish traditions
  • Swiss traditions
  • Telugu traditions
  • Ulster traditions
  • Administrative idea 3: Benefits for Mercenaries
  • Aragonese idea 1: Mercenary Princes
  • Ashanti idea 3: The Akan Coalition
  • Ayutthayan idea 3: Foreign Mercenaries
  • Burgundian idea 2: The Compagnies d'Ordonnance
  • Byzantine idea 1: Regulations for Mercenaries
  • Client State idea 6: Recruitment Centers
  • Daimyo idea 5: Wandering Ronin
  • Danziger idea 4: Hanseatic League Member
  • Epirote idea 3: Albanian and Serbian Tribes
  • Gutnish idea 2: Invite Mercenaries to Visby
  • Huron idea 2: Hire Allied Warriors
  • Italian idea 2: Italian Condottieri
  • Kurdish idea 5: Kurdish Mercenaries
  • Milanese idea 4: The Age of the Condottieri
  • Navarran idea 2: Navarrese Company
  • Pomeranian idea 5: Mercenary Contracts
  • Savoyard idea 3: Mercenary Tradition
  • Serbian idea 6: Mercenary Armies
  • Smolenskian idea 3: Western Mercenaries
  • South Indian idea 4: South Indian Mercenaries
  • Swahili idea 5: Recruit the Unbelievers
  • Theodorian idea 1: Principate Guards
  • Thomondian idea 4: Foreign Contracts
  • Tuscan idea 2: Condottieri
  • Wallachian idea 3: Mercenary Guard
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 4: Siberian Mercenaries
  • Zambezi idea 1: Warrior Culture
  • Hessian ambition
  • Administrative-Diplomatic: The Recordkeeping Act
  • Espionage-Quantity: The Mercenary Registration Act
  • Caucasian idea 2: Alan Mercenaries
  • Evenk idea 5: Mongolian Deel
  • Mahri idea 2: Mercenary Traditions
  • National idea 3: Regulated Contracts
  • Pskovian idea 3: Balt Mercenaries
"Trading in" bonus mercenary maintenance modifier
Trade in cloth -0.25
  • Additionally, raising War Taxes gives a -20% land/navy maintenance for two years.


  • The main drawback to mercenaries relative to regular forces is their higher maintenance cost---the difference in recruitment cost is usually trivial.
  • Countries with lots of money but little manpower will do well with mercenaries.
  • Since maintenance has to be paid during peacetime but manpower does not, mercenaries make a poor standing force except for rich countries.
  • Mercenaries can be readied for war on short notice due to their fast recruitment speed. Even mercenary Artillery only takes a month to recruit without other modifiers.
  • For a set of desired mercenaries, recruiting the more expensive mercenaries first will cost less than recruiting them last.
  • It's much better to use manpower to recruit artillery and cavalry and then use mercenaries to cover your infantry, as infantry take most of the casualties, and mercenary artillery and cavalry are very expensive. For example, in a 20 stack consisting of 10/4/6 inf/cav/art, it will cost less than 40% more to use all merc infantry, while reducing your non-attrition, non-overrun manpower losses by roughly 90%, whereas an all merc army costs +150% as much to maintain.

See also


  1. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: INFANTRY_COST = 10.0
  2. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: CAVALRY_COST = 25.0
  3. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: ARTILLERY_COST = 30.0
  4. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: INFANTRY_TIME = 60
  5. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: CAVALRY_TIME = 90
  6. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: ARTILLERY_TIME = 120
  7. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: LAND_TECH_MAINTENANCE_IMPACT = 0.025