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- This page deals with the recruitment and maintenance of armies. For combat mechanics see land warfare. For the individual unit types see land units.
An army refers to a country's land forces.
The basic unit of land forces is the regiment, each consisting of 1000 soldiers at full strength. Each regiment is classed as Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery. Regiments are grouped into troops. Each troop can be led by a general or conquistador.
- 1 Recruiting an army
- 2 Maintenance
- 3 Quality
- 4 Supply, attrition and reinforcement
- 5 Mercenaries
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Recruiting an army
Recruiting regular forces requires an owned, unoccupied province to recruit in, and three resources: manpower, ducats, and time. Each province can recruit one regiment at a time, though multiple regiments can be queued up in a single province. The base cost and time of a regiment depends on its type; this is then adjusted by any modifiers, in particular any buildings the province might have. Regiments start with 50% of maximum morale.
- Main article: manpower
It takes 1000 manpower to recruit a regiment. Manpower is also used for reinforcements.
Regiment cost is computed as follows:
regiment cost = base cost * (100% + Σ regiment cost modifiers)
Note: The costs are affected by inflation.
The base cost for recruiting a regiment are:
Regiment cost modifiers
Regiment cost can be affected by general and type-specific modifiers which are summed.
- General modifiers
General modifiers reduce the cost of all types of land units.
Ideas and policies:
Additional provincial modifiers:
- −20% for having a 28px Treasuary
- Type-specific modifiers
Type specific modifiers reduce only the cost of one unit type.
Ideas and policies:
Ideas and policies:
The recruitment time of a regiment is computed as follows:
recruitment time = base time * (100% + Σ recruitment time modifiers)
The base cost for recruiting a regiment are:
Recruitment time modifiers
Recruitment time can be affected by countrywide and provincial modifiers which are summed.
- Countrywide modifiers
These ideas and policies speed up recruitment time of land units:
- Provincial modifiers
- +100% for overseas provinces
- +20% for blockaded provinces
- +30% for looted provinces
- +10% for each point revolt risk
- −1% for each ducat provincial tax income
- −5% for having an 28px armory
- −5% for having a training fields
- −25% for having an 28px arsenal
- See also: Battlefield unit deployment logic
To maximize the combat effectiveness of an army, the mix of troops is of vital importance.
- To not gain the insufficient support penalty, an army mix must not surpass a maximum ratio of cavalry per infantry regiments.
- Artillery can fire from the second line, and therefore can vastly increase the effectiveness of an army.
- The number of artillery is dependent on the combat width. If there is as much artillery as the combat width, the maximum amount of artillery can be used while at the same time protecting the artillery from attacks.
- Since artillery takes double damage when in front line, it should only be deployed in second line. To achieve this, the number of artillery should not exceed the number of cavalry and infantry combined. Also reserves should be calculated to replace lost regiments in first line.
- Artillery defends first line units from attacks with half of its defense points in the corresponding battle phase.
- When optimizing army composition, troop cost has to be factored in as well. If you are not able to finance the optimal mix, other combinations that are feasible have to be chosen. With artillery being three times, cavalry two-and-a-half times more costly than infantry, a more infantry heavy but cheaper army could be more efficient. Eight infantry may very well beat three infantry + two cavalry due to the flanking effect.
- The supply limit in the provinces is also essential. Having a 40 regiment army in a province with only 30 supply limit will cause massive attrition - a smaller army is more optimal then.
Example army relying on above information: (On plain terrain, with 11 combat width from technology and 15 base, 50% insufficient support limit)
- combat width is 26, so 26 artillery
- 26 for front line, split into 60% inf and 40% cav: 16 infantry and 10 cavalry
- Calculate +50% reserves for the first row, so that artillery will be protected: 24 infantry, 15 cavalry, 26 artillery.
+ 8 infantry, 5 cavalry reserves potentially not fielded if combat width too small
Alternatively, it has been suggested in the paradox forums that a more optimal army mix would consist of mainly infantry and artillery, with much fewer cavalry only for flanking.
- Early game: 8 infantry, 2 cavalry, 5 artillery
- Mid game: 18 infantry, 2 cavalry, 10 artillery
- Late game: 36 infantry, 4 cavalry, 20 artillery
NB - Many early game scenarios lack artillery. In that case, try keeping about half the number of cavalry as you have infantry. Example would be 10 infantry plus 5 cavalry per 'army'. This force ratio is stronger than infantry alone, cheaper than a 50-50 mix. Infantry will likely bear the brunt of combat losses, so if you had equal infantry and cavalry, you would quickly be into the 'insufficient support' penalty. Pay attention to the 'supply limit' of nearby provinces as you choose optimal size for your armies (supply limit will normally increase as the game progresses, and declines in bad weather). You'll sustain fewer losses with 2:1 numerical superiority in any combat encounter. That may require exceeding the supply limit temporarily, especially if your forces are technologically inferior. By splitting your forces, you may be able to entice your enemy into an unequal contest without exceeding supply limits.
- It has also been suggested in the paradox forums, that an effective method to defend against much larger armies in mountains, is to create armies of 8 infantry and 8 artillery without cavalry, because you will not flank. (This seems to refer to a combat width of (base 15 + 10 tech) - 66% mountain modifier).
- It is still unclear which factors determine the optimal amount of cavalry. Please see discussion page for more information.
- In the early game and for many non western nations late in the game, cavalry will far exceed the damage output of infantry. Until the advent of mass firearms you should always aim to keep as many cavalry as possible in your armies.
An army needs a certain amount of money each month as maintenance. These cost can be influenced by the army maintenance slider of the economy interface. Reducing the maintenance slider can (multiplicatively) reduce maintenance cost by up to half, but reduces reinforcement rates and morale. At 0% funding, regiments will not reinforce, and maximum morale will be reduced by 100% (additive with other percentage modifiers) to a minimum of 0.51 (the minimum required for an army to move).
The maintenance cost (at a full maintenance slider) of a regiment is computed as follows:
regiment maintenance cost per month = 0.02 * recruitment cost * (100% + Σ land maintenance cost modifiers)
Any modifier that affects the cost of creating new regiments (at the time of recruitment) also affects the maintenance of units.
Note: Each level of military technology applies a +2.5% land maintenance modifier, which stacks additively with other maintenance modifiers.
Maintenance cost modifiers
These ideas and policies reduce land maintenance cost:
- +2.5% for each level of military technology
- −10% for having a grand captain as advisor
- −10% for having a 28px grain depot in one of the provinces
- −20% for raising war taxes for up to two years
- −10% for trading in salt
- −50% for having a native council government
- −0.5% for each percentage point of liberty desire as colonial nation
- −10% for having the aristocrats faction in power as merchant republic (only with Res Publica)
Total maintenance cost
- See also: Force limit
The total maintenance cost of an army depends on the land forcelimit of a country.
Define the land force limit ratio as
land force limit ratio = number of land units / land force limit
If a country has more land units than its land force limit, maintenance for those units will be multiplied by land force limit ratio. For example, if a country has 10 regiments on a land force limit of 5, land force limit ratio being 2, the maintenance for each land unit is doubled.
total maintenance cost per month = Σ regiment maintenance cost per month * max(land force limit ratio, 1)
While quantity is an important factor in warfare, quality could be considered even more crucial in the grand scheme of things. An army outnumbered by 10,000 men can find victory in better discipline and morale, and as an opponent of war-orientated European continentals such as France and Prussia, you will most probably experience the effects these high-quality armies have at some point in your games.
Several idea groups can be taken to progressively improve your armies' performance on the battlefield. Additionally, some countries get specific bonuses resembling the strength their army had in actual history.
- Choosing the right land units: as your military technology improves, you will unlock new unit types. You should make a conscious effort to re-role your troops whenever you have the option to upgrade them.
Combat ability is a value that is multiplied with your units' damage dealt (both for casualties and morale), so it works like discipline, but only for the specified type of unit while discipline affects infantry, cavalry and artillery alike.
Infantry combat ability
Cavalry combat ability
Artillery combat ability
Army morale recovery
Land leader shock
Land leader fire
Land leader maneuver
- Main article: Military tradition#Army tradition
100 Army Tradition gives 100% of the following bonuses.
Base supply limit depends on the following:
|Per base tax||+1.2|
|Earth Rampart building (Fort 2)||+3|
|Star Fort building (Fort 3)||+6|
|Tenaille building (Fort 4)||+9|
|Star Bastion building (Fort 5)||+12|
This is then multiplied by Supply Limit efficiency. This starts at 100% and is modified by:
- Either: [does this apply to allied troops as well?]
- Having a core in the province: +10%
- Being the owner of the province: +25%
- Through military technology:
- Military Technology (5): +50%
- Military Technology (12): +50%
- Military Technology (17): +50%
- Military Technology (19): +50%
- Military Technology (27): +50%
- Military Technology (31): +50%
There are currently no ideas to alter this further, although the leader maneuver bonus can count in unless you had gotten a 6 star maneuver general anyway.
Climate and attrition
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Each province has a climate and may experience winters of varying severity.
Attrition is calculated on the first day of each month, and whenever an army reaches its destination but does not immediately enter combat. If the combined number of troops (own, neutral and allied) surpasses the supply limit of a province, the armies will suffer attrition. This can happen even in owned provinces. The amount of attrition depends on the total size of all troops in that province.
Each regiment in an army has a supply weight of 1. The total supply weight of an army with a leader is reduced by 1 for every point of maneuver the leader has. Under normal circumstances, the amount of attrition is equal to the supply weight in excess of the province's supply limit, up to a maximum of 5%. Armies that are besieging hostile provinces take 1% attrition minimum, regardless of their size. An army trying to take back its own captured province does not suffer this penalty. For the duration of a battle, the armies engaged do not suffer attrition.
Scorched earth, climate and winter conditions can increase an army's supply weight and the maximum amount of attrition possible as detailed below:
For example, an army with 14 weight in a province with supply limit of 15 undergoing a severe winter would take 14 + 10 - 15 = 9% attrition.
The 7th idea of the Defensive Ideas group, Improved Foraging, reduces all attrition taken by friendly armies by 25%, applied multiplicatively. For example, an army under the supply limit with Improved Foraging besieging an enemy province takes 0.7% monthly attrition. It would make sense for the attrition to be 0.75% monthly, but the attrition display indicates 0.7%. The bonus for completing the Defensive Ideas group causes enemy troops to take 1% attrition on top of normal attrition values while in friendly territory.
Unique national ideas which affect own land attrition:
Additionally, there are ideas that give a malus to attrition to enemies on your territory:
Armies which have taken casualties will gradually reinforce up to their full strength, provided there is available manpower. The number of reinforcements that each regiment can receive is
reinforcements per month = 100 * (army maintenance factor) * (local reinforcement rate) * (100% + global reinforcement speed modifier)
- Army maintenance factor scales linearly with the position of your army maintenance slider. It is 0% if the slider is at the far left (50% army maintenance cost) and 100% if the slider is at the far right (100% army maintenance cost).
- Local reinforcement rate is 100% in owned provinces, and 50% otherwise, be it a neutral, subject, ally, enemy, or occupied province. If the army has a leader, each point of maneuver will increase the local reinforcement rate by 10% additively up to a maximum of 100%, unless the province has other modifiers that limit reinforcement rates.
- Global reinforcement speed modifier is the sum of any reinforcement speed bonuses from ideas, policies, or advisors.
All values above can be seen or deduced from the tooltip over each army's total soldier count.
Each reinforced soldier will cost half as much as a newly recruited soldier. This reinforcement cost is added to the regiment's listed maintenance value for that month.
Example: Consider a regiment of 1,000 infantrymen that costs 12 ducats to recruit and 0.3 ducats per month to maintain due to some combination of build cost, maintenance, and inflation modifiers. The cost of each newly recruited infantryman would then be 0.012 ducats, while the cost of each reinforced infantryman would be 0.006 ducats. If the regiment is reduced to 950 men after a battle and is able to receive 50 reinforcements that month to restore itself back to full strength, then its listed maintenance cost would be 0.3 * 0.95 + 0.006 * 50 = 0.585 per month.
There is no need to manually consolidate your regiments after a battle to save money. Dead soldiers do not earn a salary, and reinforced soldiers are always cheaper than newly recruited ones.
Reinforce speed can also be affected by the following:
Mercenary forces can serve as a supplement---or in extreme cases, a replacement---for a country's regular forces. Although they are only available in limited number at a time and are more expensive to maintain than regular forces, mercenaries are quick to recruit and do not cost any manpower to build or reinforce.
Differences from regular forces
- Recruitment time x0.25.
- This is a multiplier, not a -75% modifier.
- No manpower cost to recruit or reinforce.
- No war exhaustion from combat and attrition casualties.
- Mercenaries can only be recruited from a mercenary pool.
- Mercenaries appear in the pool every month up to a base maximum of 12, modified by "Available Mercenaries."
- Other than this limit, mercenaries can be recruited in any controlled province (including occupied territory), unlike regular forces which require cored ownership.
|The modifier “available mercenaries” was replaced by “mercenary manpower” with patch 1.30.|
Mercenary recruitment cost is computed as follows:
mercenary recruitment cost = base regiment cost * (100% + 50% for being mercenary + 1% per mercenary regiment + other mercenary cost modifiers)
- base regiment cost : infantry 10, cavalry 25, artillery 30
- Mercenary cost can be affected by the following:
- +50% modifier to recruitment costs, with an additional +1% per mercenary regiment currently existing or being recruited.
- Recruitment cost of mercenaries is affected by mercenary cost modifiers but is not affected by regiment cost modifiers.
- Unlike regular units, this mercenary recruitment cost does not affect actual mercenary maintenance cost.
All troops require money every month to upkeep. The cost (at a full maintenance slider) is computed as follows:
regular maintenance cost per month = 0.02 * base regiment cost * (100% + regiment cost modifiers) * (100% + land maintenance cost modifiers)
mercenary maintenance cost per month= regular maintenance cost per month* (100% + 150% for being mercenary + other mercenary maintenance modifiers)
- +150% modifier to mercenary maintenance.
- This is affected by mercenary maintenance modifiers.
- This stacks multiplicatively with land maintenance cost modifiers.
- This is computed off the regular recruitment cost, not the mercenary recruitment cost.
- Mercenary maintenance cost can be affected by the following:
|"Trading in" bonus||mercenary maintenance modifier|
|Trade in cloth||-0.25|
- Additionally, raising War Taxes gives a -20% land/navy maintenance for two years.
- The main drawback to mercenaries relative to regular forces is their higher maintenance cost---the difference in recruitment cost is usually trivial.
- Countries with lots of money but little manpower will do well with mercenaries.
- Since maintenance has to be paid during peacetime but manpower does not, mercenaries make a poor standing force except for rich countries.
- Mercenaries can be readied for war on short notice due to their fast recruitment speed. Even mercenary Artillery only takes a month to recruit without other modifiers.
- For a set of desired mercenaries, recruiting the more expensive mercenaries first will cost less than recruiting them last.
- It's much better to use manpower to recruit artillery and cavalry and then use mercenaries to cover your infantry, as infantry take most of the casualties, and mercenary artillery and cavalry are very expensive. For example, in a 20 stack consisting of 10/4/6 inf/cav/art, it will cost less than 40% more to use all merc infantry, while reducing your non-attrition, non-overrun manpower losses by roughly 90%, whereas an all merc army costs +150% as much to maintain.
- See in : INFANTRY_COST = 10.0
- See in : CAVALRY_COST = 25.0
- See in : ARTILLERY_COST = 30.0
- See in : INFANTRY_TIME = 60
- See in : CAVALRY_TIME = 90
- See in : ARTILLERY_TIME = 120
- See in : LAND_TECH_MAINTENANCE_IMPACT = 0.025