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This page deals with the recruitment and maintenance of armies. For specific combat mechanics see land warfare. For different individual unit types see land units.

An army refers to a country's land forces.

The basic unit of land forces is the regiment, each consisting of 1000 soldiers at full strength. Each regiment is classed as Infantry, Cavalry or Artillery. Regiments are grouped into armies. Each army can be led by a general or conquistador.

Recruiting an army

Recruiting regular forces requires an owned, unoccupied province to recruit in, and three resources: Manpower.pngmanpower, Gold Icon.pngducats, and Time Icon.pngtime. Each province can recruit one regiment at a time, though multiple regiments can be queued up in a single province. The base cost and time of a regiment depends on its type; this is then adjusted by any modifiers, in particular any buildings the province might have. Regiments start with 50% of maximum morale.


Main article: Manpower

It takes Manpower.png1000 manpower to recruit a regiment.[1] Manpower is also used for reinforcing depleted regiments.

Regiment cost

Regiment cost.png Regiment cost is computed as follows:

Base cost

The base costs for recruiting a regiment are:[1]

  • 10Gold Icon.png for Infantry.png infantry
  • 25Gold Icon.png for Cavalry.png cavalry
  • 30Gold Icon.png for Artillery.png artillery

Regiment cost modifiers

Regiment cost may be affected by general and type-specific modifiers which are summed.

General modifiers

General modifiers reduce the cost of all types of land units.

Regiment cost.png Conditions
−20% as TengriTengri country
−5% for trading in Iron.png iron
−10% with Parliament.png parliament and “Expand the Army” as active issue
−33% as optional difficulty bonus (for the player (very easy) or the AI (very hard))

Ideas and policies:

Regiment cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Chernihiv traditions
  • Kikuchi traditions
  • Quantity idea 3: Enforced Service
  • Armenian idea 5: Sygnakhs
  • Colonial idea 5: Colonial Militia
  • Polish idea 5: Wojsko Komputowe
  • Lur ambition
  • Toki ambition
  • Expansion-Defensive: Local Army Organization
  • Plutocratic-Trade: Trade Kontor Network

There are also many modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect regiment cost.

Type-specific modifiers

Some specific modifiers reduce only the cost of one unit type.


Infantry cost.png Conditions
+1% for each percentage point of inflation[2]

Ideas and policies:

Infantry cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Berg traditions
  • Mewari traditions
  • Imerina idea 7: Foloalindahy
  • Maratha idea 3: Peasant Soldiers
  • Burmese idea 7: Bayingyi
  • Georgian ambition
  • Ava traditions
  • Butua traditions
  • Guarani traditions
  • Jaunpuri traditions
  • Lorraine traditions
  • Malvi traditions
  • Maravi traditions
  • Nivernais traditions
  • Polotskian traditions
  • Sistani traditions
  • Somali traditions
  • Arawak idea 1: Warrior Culture
  • Bulgarian idea 4: Reform The Army
  • Interlacustrine idea 5: Emitwe
  • Kongolese idea 4: Initiation Rites
  • Montenegrin idea 3: Clan Society
  • Odoyev idea 5: Cities of the Upper Oka Valley
  • Piratical idea 3: Buccaneers
  • Romanian idea 5: Peasant Soldiers
  • Slovak idea 5: Town Air Liberates
  • Teutonic idea 1: Reform the Army
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 3: Reform Boyars
  • Zaporozhian idea 6: Army First
  • Baden ambition
  • Tupi ambition

There are also many modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect infantry cost.


Cavalry cost.png Conditions
+1% for each percentage point of inflation[2]
+20% / −20% from Cossackscossacks estates (scales with loyalty and influence) (only with The Cossacks.png)
−20% from Tribestribes estates at high loyalty (scales with influence) (only with The Cossacks.png)
−10% from Livestock.pngtrading in livestock

Ideas and policies:

Cavalry cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Horde government idea 1: Horse-lords of the Steppes
  • Aq Qoyunlu idea 2: Unite the Clans
  • Ilkhanid traditions
  • French ducal traditions
  • Fulani traditions
  • Hejazi traditions
  • Indian Sultanate traditions
  • Khivan traditions
  • Polish traditions
  • Takeda traditions
  • Transoxianian traditions
  • Aristocratic idea 1: Noble Knights
  • Al-Haasa idea 1: Desert Warfare
  • Arabian idea 2: Arabian Horses
  • Beloozero idea 1: Martial Heritage
  • Charruan idea 4: Horse Adoption
  • Circassian idea 1: Horsemen of the Steppe
  • Couronian idea 7: Promote the Curonian Kings
  • Mazovian idea 4: Szlachta Zasciankowa
  • Nanbu idea 2: Owner of the 'Nine Gates'
  • Odoyev idea 3: Commit to Tatar Ties
  • Oirat idea 1: Fearsome Warriors of Tumu
  • Permian idea 2: Turkic Mercenaries
  • Punjabi idea 6: Strength of the Misls
  • Ryazan idea 2: Tatar Mercenaries
  • Samtskhe idea 6: Frontier Warriors
  • Serbian idea 3: Home of the Hussars
  • Shiba idea 5: Oshu Ties
  • Swedish idea 3: The 'Hakkapeliitta'
  • Teutonic idea 1: Reform the Army
  • West African idea 5: Royal Stables
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 3: Reform Boyars
  • Zaporozhian idea 6: Army First
  • Aristocratic-Economic: The Court of Wards and Liveries
  • Mahri idea 5: Mahra Camels

There are also many modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect cavalry cost.


Artillery cost.png Conditions
+1% for each percentage point of inflation[2]

Ideas and policies:

Artillery cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Smolenskian idea 4: The Great Foundry
  • Rajputana idea 6: Expanded Artillery Arm
  • Transoxianian idea 4: Turkoman Cannoneers
  • Russian idea 3: Russian Artillery Yard

There are also many modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect artillery cost.

Recruitment time

The Recruitment time.png recruitment time of a regiment is computed as follows:

Base time

The base time for recruiting a regiment is:[1]

  • 60 days for Infantry.png infantry
  • 90 days for Cavalry.png cavalry
  • 120 days for Artillery.png artillery

Recruitment time modifiers

Recruitment time can be affected by countrywide and provincial modifiers which are added.

Countrywide modifiers
Recruitment time.png Conditions
−20% for trading in Copper.png copper
−10% with Parliament.png parliament and “Expand the Army” as active issue
+2% for each point of War exhaustion.png war exhaustion[2]

Ideas and policies:

Recruitment time.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Cornish traditions
  • Offensive idea 2: National Conscripts
  • Aymaran idea 7: Ayni Duties
  • Prussian idea 6: Regimental Cantons
  • Tarascan idea 4: War Bonfires
  • Lunda idea 4: An Army Overnight

There are also many modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect recruitment time.

Provincial modifiers
Local recruitment time.png Conditions
+20%.0 for blockaded provinces[2]
+30%.0 for looted provinces[2]
+10%.0 for each point Local unrest.png local unrest[2]
−1%.0 per provincial tax income[2]


See also: Battlefield unit deployment logic

To maximize combat effectiveness of an army, the ratio of infantry, cavalry and artillery is vital.

  • To avoid the insufficient support penalty, an army must not surpass the maximum ratio of cavalry per infantry regiments.
  • Artillery can fire from the second line, and therefore can vastly increase the effectiveness of an army.
  • Artillery defends first line units from attacks with half of its defense points in the corresponding battle phase.
  • Since artillery takes twice the normal damage when in the front line, it should be deployed in the second line. To achieve this, the number of artillery should not exceed the number of cavalry and infantry combined. Also reserves should be calculated to replace lost regiments in first line.
  • With artillery being three times and cavalry two-and-a-half times more expensive than infantry, a more infantry heavy but cheaper army could be more cost-efficient, especially if a nation suffers from cavalry or artillery penalties. Eight infantry regiments can easily beat three infantry + two cavalry due to flanking effects.
  • Having a 40 regiment army in a province with only 30 supply limit will cause massive attrition. It is wise to split an army in half when crossing territory with low supply limits in order to keep attrition at a minimum.

Example army relying on above information: (On plain terrain, with 11 combat width from technology and 15 base, 50% insufficient support limit)

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+ 8 infantry, 5 cavalry reserves potentially not fielded if combat width too small

For Eastern/Western factions where there are few nation bonuses to cavalry combat effectiveness, cavalry should be fielded only to maximize flanking effectiveness. The number of cavalry should therefore change with flanking range at military technology 18 and 30. To understand why, consider that infantry begins with 1 flanking range and cavalry 2. This means that if you outnumber the enemy, there is only need for 2 cavalry units for the far-flanks as your infantry will flank one unit to the side. This dynamic changes at military technology 18 where infantry has 1 flanking range, but cavalry has 3. Here, a minimum of 4 cavalry units (2 on each side) is required. The dynamic changes for the last time at level 30, where 6 cavalry units will be required for maximize flanking.

For example:

  • Early game: 8 infantry, 2 cavalry, 5 artillery
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  • Mid game: 18 infantry, 2 cavalry, 10 artillery
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  • Late game: 36 infantry, 4 cavalry, 20 artillery
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  • This rule does not apply to non-Eastern/Western nations who may have cavalry combat effectiveness bonuses and/or inferior infantry units compared to their Eastern/Western counterparts. Therefore, if you are playing Anatolian, Muslim or Nomadic factions and seek only combat effectiveness, field as many cavalry as the insufficient support limit allows.
  • Fewer losses will be sustained with numerical superiority. When above 10:1, victory may be granted with no combat. To attain numerical superiority, it may require exceeding the supply limit temporarily, especially if forces are technologically inferior. By splitting forces, it is possible to lure an enemy into an unfavorable position without exceeding supply limits.
  • When defending against a numerically superior army, fighting in terrain with an attacker combat penalty is ideal. Rough terrain gives from -1 to -2 combat penalty for the attacker and is added to river or strait crossing penalty and amphibious landing penalty.


An army needs a certain amount of money every month as maintenance. This cost can be influenced by the army maintenance slider of the economy interface. Reducing the maintenance slider can (multiplicatively) reduce maintenance cost by up to half, but also reduces reinforcement rates and morale. At 0% funding, regiments will not reinforce, and maximum morale will be reduced by 100% (additive with other percentage modifiers) to a minimum of 0.51 (the minimum required for an army to move).

Regiment maintenance cost

The maintenance cost (at a full maintenance slider) of a regiment is computed as follows:

In other words, they cost 2% of their recruitment cost,[3] multiplied by the sum of all maintenance modifiers, multiplied by the technology factor, per month. Therefore, any modifier that affects the cost of creating new regiments (at the time of recruitment) also affects the maintenance of units.

Maintenance cost modifiers

These modifiers affect the maintenance cost of land units and generally work additively, except for the maintenance impact of +2% per Military technology.png military technology[4], which is multiplicative with all other factors.

Land maintenance modifier.png Conditions
−25% for having a native council government
−20% from having 100% militarization with Government monarchy.png Prussian Monarchy (scales with militarization) (only with Rights of Man.png)
−15% for raising war taxes for up to two years
−15% for being the Revolution target.png revolution target.
+10% / −10% from Nobility.png nobility estates (scales with loyalty and influence) (only with The Cossacks.png)
−10% for having a Advisor Grand Captain.png grand captain as advisor
−10% for trading in Salt.pngsalt
−10% with Parliament.png parliament and “Quartering of Troops” as active issue
−10% for having the reform “A Unified Army” as Mayan.png Mayan country

Ideas and policies:

Land maintenance modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Mantuan traditions
  • Amago traditions
  • Golden Horde traditions
  • Lüneburger traditions
  • Manchu traditions
  • Munster traditions
  • Defensive idea 4: Regimental System
  • Economic idea 6: Nationalistic Enthusiasm
  • Quantity idea 4: The Old and Infirm
  • Chosokabe idea 1: Ichiryo Gusoku
  • Hanoverian idea 3: Schützenfest
  • Horde idea 3: Horse Supplies
  • Moroccan idea 6: Slave Soldiers
  • Najdi idea 6: Unite the Tribes
  • Nuremberger idea 2: Nuremberg Castle
  • Aq Qoyunlu ambition
  • Arawak ambition
  • Brunswicker ambition
  • Chagatai ambition
  • Mongolian ambition
  • Nubian ambition
  • Scottish ambition
  • Tyrconnell ambition
  • Administrative-Quantity: Provincial Taxation System

There are also many modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect Land maintenance modifier.png land maintenance modifier.

Total maintenance cost

See also: Force limit

The total maintenance cost of an army also depends on the land force limit of the country. If a country has more regiments than its land force limit, maintenance of all units will be multiplied by the ratio of units – with the units over the force limit counting twice[1] – to the force limit. For example, if a country has 15 regiments and a land force limit of 10, the maintenance of each regiment is doubled.


While Quantity idea group.png quantity is an important factor in warfare, Quality idea group.png quality could be considered even more crucial in the grand scheme of things. An army outnumbered by 10,000 men can find victory in better discipline and morale, and as an opponent of war-orientated European continentals such as Flag of France France and Flag of Prussia Prussia, many will most likely experience the effects of these high-quality armies at some point.

Choosing the right land units as Military technology.png military technology advances can synergize well with a country's national ideas and abilities. At any point, it is better to upgrade troops when possible and pick the specific variation afterwards than stay with the older weaker troop type.

Several Idea unlock idea groups can be taken to progressively improve armies' performance on the battlefield. Additionally, some countries get specific bonuses resembling the strength their army had in actual history.

Morale improvements

Morale of armies.png Morale indicates how long an army can keep fighting without routing. It is affected by both prestige and power projection, which increase morale by +0.1% for every point.

Army morale

Morale of armies.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • French idea 2: Elan!
  • Prussian idea 3: Army Professionalism
  • Andalusian traditions
  • Cascadian traditions
  • Castilian traditions
  • Nagpuri traditions
  • Spanish traditions
  • Defensive idea 2: Military Drill
  • Air idea 2: Cross of Agades
  • Great Qing idea 7: The Ten Great Campaigns
  • Highlander idea 1: The Wallace
  • Holy Roman idea 2: Kaiserliche Armee
  • Kiwi idea 6: Rejecting the Australia Constitution
  • Lotharingian idea 2: Glory of Charlemagne
  • Orleanaise idea 2: The Maid of Orleans
  • Polish idea 7: Focus on Field Defenses
  • Vermont idea 1: Home of the American Revolution
  • Veronese idea 4: Civil Blood and Civil Hands
  • Manchu ambition
  • Swabian ambition
  • Texan ambition
  • Anhalt traditions
  • Aq Qoyunlu traditions
  • Austrian traditions
  • Ava traditions
  • Beninese traditions
  • Burgundian traditions
  • Butua traditions
  • Chernihiv traditions
  • Client State traditions
  • Corsican traditions
  • Dalmatian traditions
  • Deccani traditions
  • Dhundhari traditions
  • Dithmarscher traditions
  • Gond traditions
  • Hatakeyama traditions
  • Hojo traditions
  • Huron traditions
  • Irish traditions
  • Jurchen traditions
  • Khorasani traditions
  • Liège traditions
  • Moldavian traditions
  • Mysorean traditions
  • Nepalese Princedom traditions
  • Oda traditions
  • Ogasawara traditions
  • Persian traditions
  • Pomeranian traditions
  • Provençal traditions
  • Pueblo ambition
  • Punjabi traditions
  • Rajputana traditions
  • Rothenburg traditions
  • Rûmi traditions
  • Sicilian traditions
  • Transoxianian traditions
  • Trent traditions
  • Tsutsui traditions
  • Welsh traditions
  • Divine idea 4: Flesh Is Weak
  • Indigenous idea 4: Braves
  • Plutocratic idea 2: Abolished Serfdom
  • Ajami idea 3: Legacy of the Ilkhans
  • Amago idea 4: Ten Brave Warriors
  • American idea 4: Lessons of Valley Forge
  • Aragonese idea 7: Protect the Little Folk
  • Ardabili idea 1: The Safavid Order
  • Aymaran idea 5: The Tinku Rites
  • Ayyubid idea 3: Righteousness of the Faith
  • Aztec idea 4: Eagles and Jaguars
  • Bolognese idea 1: Etruscan Origins
  • Brandenburg idea 4: Pomeranian Wars
  • Bulgarian idea 6: Military Flexibility
  • Carib idea 3: Resistance towards the Pailanti'po
  • Catalan idea 6: 'Lliures o Morts'
  • Cebu idea 1: Lumaya’s Ambition
  • Chachapoyan idea 1: Warriors of the Clouds
  • Charruan idea 6: Garra Charrua
  • Cherokee idea 5: Ghigau
  • Chiba idea 2: Dream of Masakado
  • Creek idea 7: Red Sticks
  • Daimyo idea 4: The Five Rings
  • Desmondian idea 3: Gaelic Bastion
  • Finnish idea 7: The Anjala Conspiracy
  • French ducal idea 7: La Petite Nation
  • Frisian idea 3: Dutch Courage
  • Fulani Jihad idea 4: Imams and Emirs
  • Galician idea 5: Santiago y Cierra!
  • Garhwali idea 3: Martial Diplomacy
  • Gelre idea 5: The Gelderland Wars
  • Genevan idea 7: Armed Neutrality
  • Goslar idea 6: Resisting the Welfs
  • Great Shun idea 4: Obedient to Heaven
  • Great Yuan idea 2: A Savage Kingdom Holy and Enchanted
  • Herzegovinian idea 3: Stjepan's Rebellion
  • Imerina idea 2: The Twelve Sampys of Imerina
  • Ionian idea 1: Frankokratia
  • Kangra idea 3: Martial Heritage
  • Khmer idea 1: Preah Ko Preah Keo
  • Kikuchi idea 4: Fortify the Domain
  • Kildarean idea 3: Silken Thomas
  • Krakowian idea 1: Legendary Legacy
  • K'iche idea 6: K'iq'ab's Vengeance
  • Luban idea 4: Encourage the Kasala Tradition
  • Lur idea 6: Rise of the Lurs
  • Lüneburger idea 7: Lionhearted
  • Mainzian idea 3: Weck, Worscht & Woi
  • Manipur idea 2: Martial Traditions
  • Mayan idea 7: Caste War
  • Medri Bahri idea 5: Independent Traditions
  • Mexican idea 7: Grito de Delores
  • Miao idea 3: Unity of the tribes
  • Mindanao idea 6: Guerrilla Warfare
  • Muscovite idea 4: Pomestnoe Voisko
  • Mushasha idea 1: Fervent Millenarianism
  • Nanbu idea 1: Genji in the North
  • Native idea 1: Counting Coups
  • Neapolitan idea 4: Crush the Power of the Barons
  • Nepali idea 5: The Royal Kumari
  • Nivernais idea 4: True Frenchmen
  • Pegu idea 4: Ramannadesa
  • Perugian idea 6: The War of the Eight Saints
  • Rassid idea 1: The Living Imam
  • Sadiyan idea 1: Land of Glory
  • Saluzzo idea 3: Marquisate
  • Samtskhe idea 4: Independent Ambitions
  • Sardinian idea 1: From the Judicate
  • Semien idea 1: Legacy of Queen Judith
  • Serbian idea 7: Balkan Hajduks
  • Shiba idea 4: Atsuta Shrine
  • Shimazu idea 1: Satsuma Hayato
  • Shoni idea 2: Defender of Japan
  • Slovak idea 7: Slovak National Awakening
  • Songhai idea 3: Jihad Against the Pagans
  • Takeda idea 1: Leader of Kai Genji
  • Three Leagues idea 4: The League of Ten
  • Timurid idea 2: The Mantle of the Great Khan
  • Tokugawa idea 1: Mikawa Bushi
  • Trebizondian idea 5: The Lessons of the Fourth Crusade
  • Uesugi idea 4: Dragon of Echigo
  • Yarkandi idea 5: Holy Warriors
  • Yi idea 7: Children of the Black Tiger
  • Ajuuraan ambition
  • Athenian ambition
  • Brabant ambition
  • Circassian ambition
  • Colonial ambition
  • Cornish ambition
  • Dai Viet ambition
  • Frankfurter ambition
  • Kievan ambition
  • Kitabatake ambition
  • Ryazan ambition
  • Religious-Quantity: Field priests and Soldier's prayer books
  • Chagatai idea 2: Ceaseless Border Wars
  • Russian idea 7: Broaden the curriculum of the Cadet Corps
  • Quality-Religious: The Military Zeal Act

Morale recovery improvements

Recover army morale speed.png Morale recovery affects how long an army will take to recover to full morale after it was lost in a battle or by changing the maintenance slider.

Army morale recovery

Recover army morale speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Quality-Administrative: The Liquor Act
  • Armenian traditions
  • Fulani traditions
  • Hungarian traditions
  • Montferrat traditions
  • Ryazan traditions
  • Pskovian idea 2: Legacy of Daumantas
  • Fully Offensive
  • Persian ambition
  • Expansion-Defensive: Local Army Organization
  • Religious-Quantity: Field priests and Soldier's prayer books

Discipline improvements

Discipline.png Discipline is a very important combat modifier, as it both multiplies the amount of casualties and the morale cost of these casualties. It starts off at 100%.

Discipline.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Anatolian traditions
  • Asakura traditions
  • Couronian traditions
  • Finnish traditions
  • Imagawa traditions
  • Japanese traditions
  • Knights Hospitaller traditions
  • Nanbu traditions
  • Ottoman traditions
  • Roman traditions
  • Romanian traditions
  • Shawnee traditions
  • Teutonic traditions
  • Three Leagues traditions
  • Wallachian traditions
  • Offensive idea 7: Esprit de Corps
  • Ando idea 6: True Shogun of Oshu
  • Bavarian idea 6: Found a Professional Army
  • Bharathi idea 4: Indian Army
  • Bregenzer idea 1: Lady of Bregenz
  • British idea 5: Reform of Commission Buying
  • Brunswicker idea 7: The Black Brunswickers
  • Burgundian idea 4: Reform of the Feudal Army
  • Butua idea 5: Regular Training
  • Byzantine idea 6: The New Imperial Army
  • Candarid idea 5: Legacy of the Candar Corps
  • Chosokabe idea 4: 100 Article Code
  • Colognian idea 7: Order of St. Michael
  • Dahomey idea 5: The Amazons
  • Daimyo idea 1: Bushido
  • Deccani idea 5: Modernize the Sarf-e-Khas
  • Divine idea 1: Holy Order
  • Epirote idea 7: Unity in Strength
  • Great Ming idea 2: Revive the Three Grand Divisions
  • Hessian idea 5: Modernization of the Hessian Army
  • Holy Roman idea 6: Adopting the Goosestep
  • Hungarian idea 3: Found the Black Army
  • Imperial German idea 3: Reichsheer
  • Irish idea 7: Nationalized Gallowglass Septs
  • Iroquois idea 6: Warriors Unity
  • Icelandic idea 5: The Men of Fire and Ice
  • Jerusalem idea 3: Frontier State
  • Kaffan idea 6: King of Kings
  • Kangra idea 7: Tigers of the Himalayas
  • Khmer idea 5: European Mercenaries
  • Kongo idea 7: Defend Against the Colonists
  • Malian idea 4: Mandinka Warrior Spirit
  • Mamluk idea 4: Reform of the Army
  • Mantuan idea 5: Soldiers for Protection
  • Mapuche idea 2: Clava Clubs
  • Mewari idea 7: Reorganized Rajput Regiments
  • Mughal idea 1: The Jagir and Mansabdari Systems
  • Munster idea 4: Spanish Ties
  • Münster idea 5: Soldiers from the Imperial Armies
  • Mutapan idea 1: Mwenemutapa
  • Oirat idea 6: Defiance of the Dzungars
  • Otomo idea 3: Loyal Retainers
  • Persian idea 3: Found the Ghulams
  • Polish idea 6: Found the Foreign section
  • Punjabi idea 7: Reforming the Punjabi Army
  • Rigan idea 7: Restore the Brothers of the Sword
  • Rothenburg idea 5: The Drink of War
  • Rûmi idea 1: Abul-Fath
  • Sardinian idea 7: The Order of Saint Maurice
  • Saxon idea 7: The Saxon Circle
  • Shimazu idea 4: Tsurinobuse
  • Swedish idea 2: Swedish Steel
  • Tibetan idea 6: The Way of the Ancients
  • Tokugawa idea 3: Hatamoto
  • Uesugi idea 6: Agakita-shu
  • Vijayanagar idea 7: An Army for the City of Victory
  • Full Quality
  • Amago ambition
  • Ansbach ambition
  • Ayyubid ambition
  • Bamberger ambition
  • Bayreuther ambition
  • Carib ambition
  • Dortmund ambition
  • Franconian ambition
  • French ambition
  • Hanoverian ambition
  • Hindustani ambition
  • Karamanid ambition
  • Lüneburger ambition
  • Manx ambition
  • Mysorean ambition
  • Nepali ambition
  • Ogasawara ambition
  • Papal ambition
  • Prussian ambition
  • Rajput ambition
  • Rajputana ambition
  • Ruthenian ambition
  • Songhai ambition
  • Spanish ambition
  • Swiss ambition
  • Ambition of Theodoro
  • Timurid ambition
  • Trierian ambition
  • Tuscan ambition
  • Vermont ambition
  • Westphalian ambition
  • Yamana ambition
  • Economic-Quality: Weapon Quality Standards
  • Austrian idea 7: Hofkriegsrat
  • Sardinian-Piedmontese idea 4: Royal Sardinian Army
  • Incan idea 4: Drafted Hatun Runas
  • National idea 1: Preserve Our Troops
  • Norwegian idea 7: Write New Sagas

Combat ability improvements

Combat ability is a value that is multiplied with the units' damage dealt (both for casualties and morale), making it work similarly like discipline, but only for a specific type of unit while discipline affects infantry, cavalry and artillery alike. It also has no effect on military tactics, unlike discipline.

Infantry combat ability

Infantry combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Swedish traditions
  • Prussian idea 5: The Goose Step
  • Imperial German traditions
  • Dalmatian idea 5: Dalmatian Independent Army
  • Great Shun idea 6: From Sticks to Guns
  • Hindustani idea 1: Sepahi
  • Italian (cU) idea 2: The Tradition of the Legion
  • Bulgarian ambition
  • Japanese ambition
  • Three Leagues ambition
  • Ashanti traditions
  • Aztec traditions
  • Beloozero traditions
  • Bengal Sultanate traditions
  • Bengali traditions
  • Chosokabe tradition
  • Date traditions
  • English traditions
  • Georgian traditions
  • German traditions
  • Gujarat Sultanate traditions
  • Hosokawa traditions
  • Iroquois traditions
  • Lotharingian traditions
  • Lur traditions
  • Malvi traditions
  • Mewari traditions
  • Milanese traditions
  • Mindanao traditions
  • Mushasha traditions
  • Oda traditions
  • Québécois traditions
  • Rassid traditions
  • Saluzzo traditions
  • Shimazu traditions
  • Slovak traditions
  • Songhai traditions
  • Swiss traditions
  • Tokugawa traditions
  • Tripuran traditions
  • Tyrone traditions
  • Veronese traditions
  • Vijayanagar traditions
  • Yemeni traditions
  • Zambezi traditions
  • Quality idea 1: Private to Marshal
  • Ainu idea 7: Fierce Resistance
  • Amago idea 2: Izumo Shugo
  • Arawak idea 5: Arawak Raiders
  • Asakura idea 4: Asakura Soteki
  • Australian idea 4: The Diggers
  • Bohemian idea 3: Wagenburg
  • Brandenburg idea 1: Northern March
  • Brazilian idea 4: Halting Foreign Incursions
  • Butua idea 3: Empowering the Rozwi
  • Carib idea 2: Poisonous Warfare
  • Caspian idea 2: A Time of Turmoil
  • Chickasaw idea 2: Spartans of the Lower Mississippi
  • Chinese idea 5: Firearm Training
  • Croatian idea 7: Pandurs
  • Dai Viet idea 1: The Great Proclamation
  • Deccani Sultanate idea 4: Purchase Habshis
  • Dithmarscher idea 1: Resistance to Feudalism
  • Ethiopian idea 7: Reformed Armies
  • French ducal idea 3: Qui Ruit Et Lethum
  • Galician idea 7: Irmandinos
  • Garjati idea 5: Jungle Warfare
  • Gond idea 5: Raiding the Lowlands
  • Greek idea 3: Klephtic Recruitment
  • Guarani idea 7: Royal Armaments
  • Interlacustrine idea 6: Unity of the Clans
  • Jaunpuri idea 7: Modernization of the Army
  • Laotian idea 5: Laotian Elephant Cavalry
  • Leonese idea 7: Leonese Nationalism
  • Maravi idea 5: Serving Abroad
  • Nepali idea 6: The Gurkhas
  • Orissan idea 1: Lord of the Elephants
  • Ormond idea 1: English Service
  • Polish idea 3: Piechota Wybraniecka
  • Roman idea 4: The Roman Legions
  • Sadiyan idea 6: Reform the Sadiya Armies
  • Satake idea 4: Kashima Jingu
  • Shiba idea 7: Mogami Family
  • Somali idea 4: Offensive Warfare
  • Tarascan idea 1: Copperworking
  • Teutonic idea 3: Adjust our Infantry Tactics
  • Tsutsui idea 1: Warrior Monks
  • Tupi idea 3: It Is A Good Day To Die
  • Tverian idea 6: Tverian Tercio
  • Deccani ambition
  • Imerina ambition
  • Indian Sultanate ambition
  • Korean ambition
  • Malian ambition
  • Mantuan ambition
  • Mayan ambition
  • Montenegrin ambition
  • Nepalese Princedom ambition
  • Nivernais ambition
  • Polotskian ambition
  • Sistani ambition
  • Serbian ambition
  • Uesugi ambition
  • Athenian idea 7: Athenian Army Reform
  • Kongo idea 5: The Triangle Trade
  • Ryazan idea 5: March of Russia
  • Tunisian idea 1: Catalan Guard
  • Innovative-Quality: Modern Firearm Techniques

Cavalry combat ability

Cavalry combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Polish idea 4: Winged Hussars
  • Horde Ardor
  • Aq Qoyunlu traditions
  • Chagatai traditions
  • Great Yuan traditions
  • Hungarian traditions
  • Ilkhanid traditions
  • Mughal traditions
  • Oirat traditions
  • Qara Qoyunlu traditions
  • Burmese idea 2: Elephant Warfare
  • Crimean idea 1: Genghisid Legacy
  • Golden Horde idea 3: Tatar Traditions
  • Horde idea 2: Traditions of the Great Khan
  • Kazani idea 3: Warrior Society
  • Lithuanian idea 5: Lithuanian Hussars
  • Mongolian idea 1: Ghostly Horses of the Plain
  • Transoxianian idea 1: Mawarannahr, the land Beyond the River
  • Delhian traditions
  • Khorasani traditions
  • Persian traditions
  • Afghan idea 5: Durrani Imperialism
  • Anatolian idea 3: Akîncî Cavalry
  • Ansbach idea 7: Dragoons of Ansbach
  • Ardabili idea 2: The Qizilbash
  • Bharathi idea 1: Modernized War Elephant Tactics
  • Chernihiv idea 2: Field Cossack Regiments
  • Couronian idea 7: Promote the Curonian Kings
  • Epirote idea 5: Latin Knights
  • Finnish idea 2: The Hakkapeliitta
  • Karamanid idea 3: Karamanid Cavalry
  • Khivan idea 1: Horde Legacy
  • Manchu idea 5: Link with the Mongol Dynasty
  • Maratha idea 1: Tradition of Military Service
  • Ottoman idea 3: Timar System
  • Rajput idea 3: Marwari Horses
  • Rajputana idea 3: Marwari Horses
  • Ruthenian idea 3: Zaporozhian Cossacks
  • Serbian idea 4: Alemannic Guard
  • Shirvani idea 3: Tribesmen of the Caucasus
  • Transylvanian idea 1: Unio Trium Nationum
  • Ava ambition
  • Hejazi ambition
  • Al-Haasa traditions
  • Bahmani traditions
  • Bavarian traditions
  • Croatian traditions
  • Deccani Sultanate traditions
  • Indian Sultanate traditions
  • Mamluk traditions
  • Mazovian traditions
  • Mossi traditions
  • Northumbrian traditions
  • Takeda traditions
  • Teutonic traditions
  • Aristocratic idea 1: Noble Knights
  • Quality idea 3: Finest of Horses
  • Ayyubid idea 4: Elite Warriors
  • Berber idea 5: Tuareg Cavalry
  • Caucasian idea 7: Cavalry Armies
  • Franconian idea 4: Free Imperial Knights of Franconia
  • Gujarati Princedom idea 1: Kathiawari Horses
  • Kildarean idea 5: Curragh Horsemanship
  • Lan Xang idea 2: Elephant Cavalry
  • Moroccan idea 6: Slave Soldiers
  • Nubian idea 6: Desert Cavalry
  • Sukhothai idea 7: War Elephants
  • Vijayanagar idea 2: Arab Horses
  • Wurzburgian idea 3: Franconian Circle
  • Charruan ambition
  • Punjabi ambition
  • Vindhyan ambition
  • Aristocratic-Espionage: Noble Loyalty Act
  • Circassian idea 1: Horsemen of the Steppe
  • Ogasawara idea 3: Kiso-uma

Artillery combat ability

Artillery combat ability.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Quality idea 7: Massed Battery
  • Bharathi idea 7: Develop Rocket Technology
  • Ferraran idea 3: Alfonso I's Reforms
  • Portuguese idea 7: Royal Academy of Fortification, Artillery and Drawing
  • Russian idea 3: Russian Artillery Yard
  • Smolenskian idea 6: Artillery Before All
  • Otomo ambition
  • Satake ambition
  • Offensive-Economic: Horse Artillery
  • Athenian idea 7: Athenian Army Reform

General improvements

These modifiers affect the base attributes of the military leader and are added on top of them.

Land leader shock

Land leader shock.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Manchu traditions
  • Qara Qoyunlu traditions
  • Scottish traditions
  • Shirvani traditions
  • Timurid traditions
  • Offensive idea 1: Bayonet Leaders
  • Ajuuraan idea 6: Expelling the Infidel
  • Aq Qoyunlu idea 1: The White Sheep
  • Arawak idea 7: Jungle Warfare
  • Bengal Sultanate idea 5: Conquest of the Gangetic Plain
  • Charruan idea 3: Bolas Warfare
  • Chiba idea 5: Katori Jingu
  • Cilli idea 2: Mercenary Captains
  • Crimean idea 4: Despoilers
  • Epirote idea 1: Legacy of Pyrrhus
  • Hatakeyama idea 2: Indomitable Generals
  • Hojo idea 2: Night Combat
  • Horde idea 4: Steppe Leaders
  • Jerusalem idea 5: Crusader Aristocracy
  • Jurchen idea 3: Foreign Service
  • Lithuanian idea 1: Warlord Dukes
  • Mexican idea 6: Heroes of the Revolution
  • Mongolian idea 7: The Kheshig
  • Oda idea 3: Oda Generals
  • Rassid idea 6: Like Salt Dissolves in Water
  • Shan idea 5: Raiders
  • Shoni idea 5: Bear of Hizen
  • Tibetan idea 2: Bön Influence.
  • Tyrconnell idea 5: Lessons of Knockavoe
  • Wallachian idea 5: Legacy of the Impaler
  • Yamana idea 4: The Western Army
  • Air ambition
  • Arabian ambition
  • Oirat ambition
  • Swedish ambition
  • Humanist-Quantity: Inspirational Leaders

Land leader fire

Land leader fire.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Offensive idea 3: Superior Firepower
  • Great Ming idea 7: The Red Cannon
  • Rajput idea 6: Martial Ethos
  • Smolenskian idea 5: Hold The Line
  • Bohemian ambition
  • Mori ambition
  • Oda ambition
  • Qara Qoyunlu ambition
  • Utsunomiya ambition
  • Expansion-Quality: The Mining Act

Land leader maneuver

Land leader maneuver.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Evenk idea 6: Love of the Forest
  • Shawnee ambition
  • Ainu traditions
  • Burmese traditions
  • Carib traditions
  • Crimean traditions
  • Herzegovinian traditions
  • Norman traditions
  • Ulmer traditions
  • Defensive idea 3: Improved Maneuver
  • Air idea 6: Nomadic Traditions
  • Albanian idea 2: Land of Ambushers
  • Arabian idea 6: Clan Loyalties
  • Brabant idea 2: Marsh Warfare
  • Caucasian idea 3: Hit and Run
  • Kazani idea 5: Steppe Warfare
  • Mongolian idea 6: Mongolian Mobility
  • Nagpuri idea 2: Exploit Harsh Terrain
  • Oirat idea 1: Fearsome Warriors of Tumu
  • Permian idea 5: Warriors of the Taiga
  • Qara Qoyunlu 4: Dynamic Warfare
  • Romanian idea 2: Skilled Commanders
  • Tapuian idea 5: The Way of the Jaguar
  • Tyrone idea 6: Ambush Warfare
  • Zaporozhian idea 4: Hit And Run
  • Lithuanian ambition
  • Quantity-Exploration: Hired Adventurers

Leader siege

Leader siege.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Nepali idea 7: Envelopment and Blockade
  • Oda idea 4: Influential Strongholds
  • Full Aristocracy
  • Cilli ambition
  • Meath ambition
  • Sonoran ambition
  • Urbinate ambition
  • Innovative-Offensive: Modern Siege Weapons

Army tradition

Main article: Military tradition#Army tradition

Army tradition provides powerful boons to the offensive power of armies. It also provides a higher chance of getting land leaders with a high fire/shock/maneuver/siege value. 100 army tradition gives the following bonuses, which scale linearly to 0% at 0 tradition.

At 100:

Recover army morale speed.png +10%.00 Recover army morale speed
Morale of armies.png +25%.00 Morale of armies
Manpower recovery speed.png +10%.00 Manpower recovery speed
Siege ability.png +5%.00 Siege ability
Commanderies faction influence +0.10% Commanderies faction influence
Aristocrats influence +0.10% The aristocrats influence
Girondist influence +0.10% Girondists influence
Militarization of state.png +0.10% Militarization of state
Nobility loyalty equilibrium.png +5%.00 Nobility loyalty equilibrium
Marathas loyalty equilibrium.png +5%.00 Marathas loyalty equilibrium
Rajputs loyalty equilibrium.png +5%.00 Rajputs loyalty equilibrium

Supply and attrition

An army will take attrition damage on the first day of each month if the total supply weight of all non-hostile armies in the province exceeds the supply limit of that province. This can happen even in owned provinces. The amount of attrition depends on the supply weight of all troops in that province in comparison to the local supply limit.

Supply weight

Each regiment in an army has a supply weight of 1. The total supply weight of an army with a leader is reduced by 1 for each point of maneuver the leader has. Province modifiers that increase attrition act by increasing the supply weight of each army in addition to increasing attrition. The final attrition damage for an army is determined by this formula:


The only exception to this is if an army has moved into a province where two hostile forces are engaged in combat. As the combatants are temporarily neutral to the newly arrived army, some of their supply weight will still be added to this armies' and may cause attrition.

Supply limit

The base supply limit of each province depends on the terrain type:

Source Supply limit
Base +6
Farmlands +10
Grassland +8
Drylands +7
Coastline +6
Highlands +6
Savannah +6
Steppes +6
Woods +6
Hills +5
Jungle +5
Marsh +5
Coastal Desert +4
Desert +4
Glacier +2
Mountains +4
Forest +4

This is then adjusted by supply limit efficiency modifiers. All modifiers below stack additively:

Amount Source
+50% Province is coastal
+50% Area of the province has a supply depot
+25% Owner of province
+10% Military Access/Allied/Controlled/Cored Enemy Province
+2% Per Development.png development level
up to −50% Proportional to the level of Devastation.png devastation
−20% Arid.png Arid climate
−30% Tropical.png Tropical climate
−40% Arctic.png Arctic climate
−10% Mild winter.png Mild winter
−20% Normal winter.png Normal winter
−30% Severe winter.png Severe winter
−10% Mild monsoon.png Mild monsoon
−20% Normal monsoon.png Normal monsoon
−30% Severe monsoon.png Severe monsoon
+50% Military technology.png Military technology level 5
+50% Military technology.png Military technology level 12
+50% Military technology.png Military technology level 17
+50% Military technology.png Military technology level 19
+50% Military technology.png Military technology level 27
+50% Military technology.png Military technology level 31

There are currently no ideas to alter this further.

Attrition damage

Under normal circumstances, the amount of attrition is x%, where x is 10/supply limit, for each point of supply weight in excess of the local supply limit, up to a maximum of 5%. Armies that are besieging hostile provinces take 1 unit of supply weight extra attrition, regardless of their size. An army trying to take back its own captured province does not suffer this penalty. For the duration of a battle, the armies engaged do not suffer attrition.

Example: An army with 20 supply weight in a province with 17 supply limit would normally take (20 - 17)*(10/17) = 1.76% attrition each month. If that army were besieging a hostile province it would suffer (20 + 1 - 17)*10/17 = 2.35% attrition.

Besieging armies will always take at least 1% base Attrition attrition, even if the province is unfortified. This rule only applies to enemy-owned provinces, however - when besieging friendly provinces to retake them from the enemy, this rule is ignored.

Attrition damage is applied before reinforcements, so an army suffering from attrition will not take noticeable damage unless the attrition exceeds the reinforcement rate. This can mask an otherwise severe drain in manpower due to attrition, so players are advised to pay careful attention to any army with the attrition icon (Attrition). The attrition damage taken by a unit is proportional to the current strength of the unit and not the maximum strength of the unit.

Attrition modifiers

Climates that increase attrition according to the in-game tooltips act by increasing each army's supply weight instead. Devastated provinces will also increase local attrition rates. Attrition stacks additively.

Arctic −40% +1%
Tropical −30% +2%
Arid −20% +1%
Mild Winter −10% +1%
Normal Winter −20% +2%
Severe Winter −30% +3%
Devastation Up to −50%
General Maneuver Pips −(1-6)

The 7th idea of the Defensive Ideas group, Improved Foraging, reduces all attrition taken by friendly armies by 25%, applied multiplicatively. For example, an army under the supply limit with Improved Foraging besieging an enemy province takes 0.7% monthly attrition. It would make sense for the attrition to be 0.75% monthly, but the attrition display indicates 0.7%. The bonus for completing the Defensive Ideas group causes enemy troops to take 1% attrition on top of normal attrition values while in friendly territory.

Ideas which reduce attrition are applied after reaching the attrition cap, so an army with -25% attrition damage has an effective maximum attrition of 4%.

Unique national ideas, idea groups and policies which affect land attrition:

Land attrition.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Defensive idea 7: Improved Foraging
  • Humanist-Defensive: The Preparation Act
  • Quality-Exploration: Superior Supply Systems
  • Kongo traditions
  • Horde government idea 4: There Shall Be No Grass
  • Cascadian idea 7: The Oregon Trail
  • Horde idea 1: The Life of a Steppe Warrior
  • Mongolian idea 3: The Life of a Steppe Warrior
  • Oirat idea 2: The Life of a Steppe Warrior
  • Ainu traditions
  • Arabian traditions
  • Canadian traditions
  • Siberian traditions
  • Charruan idea 2: Legacy of the Pampas
  • Cossack idea 3: Steppe Riders
  • Dhundhari idea 7: Pindari Mercenaries
  • Zaporozhian idea 3: Steppe Riders
  • Ethiopian traditions
  • Khivan traditions
  • Kongolese traditions
  • Malian traditions
  • Quantity idea 7: Expanded Supply Trains
  • Aboriginal idea 4: People of the Outback
  • Australian idea 2: The Land Down Under
  • Aymaran idea 3: Chu'uqi Production
  • Burmese idea 6: Organized Military Campaigns
  • Chagatai idea 1: The Mountain Khanate
  • Clanricarde idea 5: To Hell or to Connacht
  • Evenk idea 1: Family Brigades
  • Hejazi idea 4: Desert Warfare
  • Incan idea 7: Tambo Waystations
  • Montferrat idea 3: The Italian Frontier
  • Sami idea 6: Living off the Land
  • Tapuian idea 1: Hunter Gatherers
  • Texan idea 4: Vaqueros
  • Venetian idea 7: Found the provveditori ai beni inculti
  • Chickasaw ambition
  • Jurchen ambition

Land attrition is capped at −80%, resulting in 1% maximum attrition.

Additionally, there are ideas that give a malus to attrition to enemies on a nation's territory:

Attrition for enemies.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Brazilian traditions
  • Caucasian traditions
  • Dai Viet traditions
  • Evenk traditions
  • Garhwali traditions
  • Interlacustrine traditions
  • Icelandic traditions
  • Kangra traditions
  • Kongolese traditions
  • Leinster traditions
  • Luban traditions
  • Lunda traditions
  • Mapuche traditions
  • Montenegrin traditions
  • Northumbrian traditions
  • Offaly traditions
  • Ogasawara traditions
  • Polotskian traditions
  • Sadiyan traditions
  • Tripuran traditions
  • Tumbuka traditions
  • Welsh traditions
  • Indigenous idea 2: Irregular Warfare
  • Afghan idea 7: Graveyard of Empires
  • Ainu idea 5: Hunters and Warriors
  • Assamese idea 3: River Warfare
  • Australian idea 2: The Land Down Under
  • Baluch idea 1: Natural Defenses
  • Beloozero idea 6: Boreal Warfare
  • Berber idea 2: Desert Warfare
  • Bosnian idea 7: Over the Hills and Through the Woods
  • Carib idea 4: Rainforests of the Guyana
  • Chachapoyan idea 7: Cloud Forests
  • Charruan idea 5: Resist Conquistadors
  • Chickasaw idea 3: Nighttime Raids
  • Cornish idea 2: Cornish Rebels
  • Divine idea 6: Turn the Other Cheek
  • Finnish idea 6: The White Death
  • Flemish idea 7: Noose-Bearers
  • Gond idea 3: Tigers and Elephants
  • Hadramhi idea 1: Death Has Come
  • Highlander idea 2: The Highland Clans
  • Jurchen idea 1: Sons of the Mountain
  • Khivan idea 2: Deserts of Khiva
  • Kuban idea 5: Ngesh Dancing
  • Kurdish idea 1: Mountain Warriors
  • Lusatian idea 1: Zittau Mountains
  • Luzon idea 2: Conquest of Paradise
  • Mayan idea 6: Remote Isolation
  • Miao idea 6: Mountain Retreats
  • Munster idea 3: Hill Raiders
  • Mushasha idea 3: Swamp Warfare
  • Najdi idea 4: Bedouin Raiders
  • Nubian idea 3: Warriors of the Sahara Desert
  • Romanian idea 3: Scorch the Lands and Poison the Wells
  • Sami idea 1: Land of the Midnight Sun
  • Shawnee idea 2: Dark and Bloody Ground
  • Siberian idea 1: Hunters of the North
  • Sinhalese idea 7: Sinhalese Guerrilla Warfare
  • Sulawesi idea 7: Asymmetrical Resistance
  • Tirhuti idea 5: Riverine Landscape
  • Tsutsui idea 4: Mountain Warfare
  • Ulster idea 4: Rapparees
  • Vindhyan idea 5: Untamed Lands
  • Yi idea 2: Deep in the Mountains
  • Fully Defensive
  • Armenian ambition
  • Moroccan ambition
  • Defensive-Religious: Edict of Resistance
  • Influence-Quantity: Guerilla Warfare
  • Chagatai idea 1: The Mountain Khanate
  • Trierian idea 4: Landesburgen


Army regiments that have taken casualties will gradually reinforce up to their full strength according to available manpower, or if they are mercenaries - usually at a significant cost. However, if they gain more soldiers monthly than they lose to attrition, there is no extra cost beyond base army maintenance, so reinforcement speed modifiers can save you a lot of money - even so, beware of heavy attrition.

Reinforcement speed

The number of reinforcements that each regiment can receive in a month is:

army maintenance factor
The army maintenance factor scales linearly with the position of the army maintenance slider. It is 50% if the slider is at the far left and 100% if the slider is at the far right.
local reinforcement modifier
The local reinforcement modifier is 100% in owned provinces, 10% in uncolonized provinces, and 50% otherwise, be it a neutral, subject, ally, enemy, or occupied province. If the army has a leader, each point of Land leader maneuver.png maneuver will increase the local reinforcement modifier by +10% additively up to a maximum of 100%. An army that has been in battle will suffer a temporary −40% penalty to their local reinforcement modifier for the current month if they are not in owned territory.
global reinforcement modifiers

The reinforcement speed modifiers from ideas, policies, advisors etc. are summed up.

Reinforce speed is affected by the following:

Reinforce speed.png Conditions
+33% with a Advisor Quartermaster.png quartermaster as advisor
+33% with a General.png general with 'Battlefield Medic' trait
−25% is bankrupt

Ideas and policies:

Reinforce speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Defensive idea 6: Supply Trains
  • Austrian idea 7: Hofkriegsrat
  • Serbian traditions
  • Yaroslavlyian traditions
  • Yi idea 3: Chain of Zimo Domains
  • Tverian ambition
  • Quality-Administrative: The Liquor Act
  • Tupi traditions
  • Khivan ambition
  • Siberian idea 6: Successful Raids

All values above can be seen or deduced from the tooltip over each army's total soldier count.

Reinforce cost

  • The base reinforcements are up to 100 per Regiment, depending on army status and location.
  • Additional reinforcements from reinforcement speed modifiers don't cost extra ducats, but still consume additional manpower.

Ideas and policies:

Reinforce cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Uesugi idea 3: Kamakura Office
  • Influence-Offensive: Foreign Conscription Centers
  • Mongolian idea 5: Yams of the Great Khan


Mercenary forces can serve as a supplement – or replacement – for a country's regular forces. They are only available in limited number. Mercenaries can be recruited in any controlled province (including occupied territory), unlike regular forces which require cored ownership or a subject province. Mercenaries are more expensive to maintain than regular forces. They are also quick to recruit and do not cost any manpower to build or reinforce.

Differences from regular forces

  • Recruitment time x0.25.
  • This is a multiplier, not a -75% modifier.
  • No manpower cost to recruit or reinforce.
  • More expensive in both cost and maintenance
  • No unlimited amount available

Mercenary support limit

The number of mercenaries a nation can field is determined by their mercenary support limit, which replaced the mercenary pool. Every country has a base of 20 regiments[1] plus 30% of its regular land force limit. This sum is modified by the available mercenaries modifier.

Available mercenaries

The available amount of mercenaries is modified by:

Mercenary manpower.png Conditions
+5.0% for raising war taxes for up to two years
+12.5% during the English War of the Roses.pngWar of the Roses disaster.
+0.3% per point of Army professionalism.png army professionalism below 50 (i.e. 15% at 0, 0 at 50% or higher).

Ideas and policies:

Mercenary manpower.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
The modifier “available mercenaries” was replaced by “mercenary manpower” with patch 1.30.

There are also many modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect Mercenary manpower.png available mercenaries.

Note: The ‘available mercenaries’ modifiers affect also the maximum number of regiments for condottieri (only with Mare Nostrum.png Mare Nostrum DLC).

Mercenary cost.png Mercenary recruitment cost

Mercenary recruitment cost is computed as follows:

The base regiment costs are:

Regiment Type Base Cost
Infantry 20 Gold Icon.png
Cavalry 35 Gold Icon.png
Artillery 40 Gold Icon.png

Recruitment cost of mercenaries is not affected by regiment cost modifiers, but is affected by the following:

Mercenary cost.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Administrative idea 1: Organized Mercenary Payments
Mercenary cost.png Modifier
+50% Base
+1% Per mercenary regiment already existing or being recruited
−0.33% Positive Yearly prestige.png Prestige (per point)
+0.33% Negative Yearly prestige.png Prestige (per point)

Mercenary maintenance cost

Note that for Mercenary maintenance.png mercenary maintenance:

  • There is a +150% modifier to mercenary maintenance.
  • This is affected by mercenary maintenance modifiers.
  • This is computed off the regular recruitment cost, not the mercenary recruitment cost.
  • Normal land maintenance doesn't have any impact on mercenary maintenance
  • Mercenary maintenance cost can be affected by the following:
Mercenary maintenance.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Ansbach traditions
  • Bayreuther traditions
  • Caspian traditions
  • Dortmund traditions
  • German traditions
  • Luccan traditions
  • Malabari traditions
  • Novgorodian traditions
  • Sienese traditions
  • Swedish traditions
  • Swiss traditions
  • Telugu traditions
  • Ulster traditions
  • Administrative idea 3: Benefits for Mercenaries
  • Aragonese idea 1: Mercenary Princes
  • Ashanti idea 3: The Akan Coalition
  • Ayutthayan idea 3: Foreign Mercenaries
  • Burgundian idea 2: The Compagnies d'Ordonnance
  • Byzantine idea 1: Regulations for Mercenaries
  • Client State idea 6: Recruitment Centers
  • Daimyo idea 5: Wandering Ronin
  • Danziger idea 4: Hanseatic League Member
  • Epirote idea 3: Albanian and Serbian Tribes
  • Gutnish idea 2: Invite Mercenaries to Visby
  • Huron idea 2: Hire Allied Warriors
  • Italian idea 2: Italian Condottieri
  • Kurdish idea 5: Kurdish Mercenaries
  • Milanese idea 4: The Age of the Condottieri
  • Navarran idea 2: Navarrese Company
  • Pomeranian idea 5: Mercenary Contracts
  • Savoyard idea 3: Mercenary Tradition
  • Serbian idea 6: Mercenary Armies
  • Smolenskian idea 3: Western Mercenaries
  • South Indian idea 4: South Indian Mercenaries
  • Swahili idea 5: Recruit the Unbelievers
  • Theodorian idea 1: Principate Guards
  • Thomondian idea 4: Foreign Contracts
  • Tuscan idea 2: Condottieri
  • Wallachian idea 3: Mercenary Guard
  • Yaroslavlyian idea 4: Siberian Mercenaries
  • Zambezi idea 1: Warrior Culture
  • Hessian ambition
  • Administrative-Diplomatic: The Recordkeeping Act
  • Espionage-Quantity: The Mercenary Registration Act
  • Caucasian idea 2: Alan Mercenaries
  • Evenk idea 5: Mongolian Deel
  • Mahri idea 2: Mercenary Traditions
  • National idea 3: Regulated Contracts
  • Pskovian idea 3: Balt Mercenaries
Mercenary maintenance.png Modifier
−25% with a ruler which has the Mercenary maintenance.png ‘Fierce Negotiator’ personality
−15% trading in Cloth.png Cloth

Mercenary discipline

Some ideas and bonuses increase the discipline of mercenary regiments:

Mercenary discipline.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Offaly idea 1: The Gallowglasses
  • Sonoran idea 1: Republic of Mercenaries
  • Swiss idea 1: Swiss Mercenaries
  • Tunisian idea 1: Catalan Guard
  • Ulmer idea 6: Enlist the Swiss Mercenaries
  • Urbinate idea 2: Condottiere Kings
  • Plutocratic idea 1: Tradition of Payment
  • Sindhi idea 7: Recruit Balochi Tribesmen
  • Tyrone idea 7: The Wild Geese

There are also modifiers from decisions, events and missions that affect Mercenary discipline.png mercenary discipline.


Marines are a special unit type available for recruitment to any country as a percentage of its force-limit. Their main advantage is that they do not take attrition at sea, thus avoiding the attrition troops take when being transported in the open sea (10%) or along the coast (1%). Marines use sailors instead of manpower, they have +200% Disembarking Speed and ignore crossing penalties. However they do take +25% more shock damage.


Marines can be recruited from the macrobuilder (once unlocked via idea/tradition etc.) and they use 1,000 sailors per regiment. Their recruitment time and cost, as well as maintenance cost is identical to regular infantry regiments.

Available Marines

Some ideas and bonuses increase the percentage of available marine regiments:

  • Custom nation idea - either 5% or 10% marine FL
  • Venetian Marines country modifier (rewarded via their missions) - 5% marine FL
  • Naval Ideas finisher - 5% marine FL
  • English idea Redcoats - 5% marine FL
  • British idea Britannia Rules the Waves - 10% marine FL
  • Castilian traditions - 5% marine FL
  • Dutch (Holland or Netherlands) idea Instructie voor de Admiraliteiten - 5% marine FL
  • American traditions - 10% marine FL
  • Australian idea The Diggers - 10% marine FL
  • Naval Doctrine Portuguese Marines (Portuguese or Brazilian culture) - 10% marine FL
  • Economic/Maritime policy The Recruitment Act - 5% marine FL
  • Trade company Investment Governor General Mansion - 2% marine FL

Special regiment categories

Aside from regulars and mercenaries, there are five other categories of units with unique recruitment mechanics and modifiers that are each available only to countries that meet certain conditions. Because they are each recruited in a unique way, none cost Regiment cost.png ducats, Manpower.png manpower, or Recruitment time.png time to recruit, but unless stated otherwise they start at low Morale.png morale and are Land maintenance modifier.png maintained and reinforced at the same ducat and manpower cost as regulars.


Banners are a special unit category available to nations that have Manchu or Jurchen as their primary culture and are available to the Mongol Empire. Banner units are displayed with a purple background in the army view. The total number of Banners can be viewed in the Military tab (shortcut .) by hovering over the total number of individual unit type. Banners have Discipline.png +5% discipline -- they can still be drilled -- and can be cavalry or infantry.

Banners can be recruited in the state interface in states with primary culture cores. For Mongol Empire, this can be any culture that is set as the primary culture of the empire. For all others, banner units will no longer be available if primary culture is changed beyond Manchu. If recruited in the state interface then the exact unit type (cavalry vs infantry) depends on the total army composition. A newly raised banner unit will be cavalry unless the total cavalry proportion is at or over the Cavalry to infantry ratio.png cavalry to infantry ratio of the raising nation.

In each state, 1 banner regiment can be recruited for every total 16 Development.png development (rounded down) from provinces that are of the nation's primary culture. Availability is modified by the Possible Manchu banners.png possible manchu banners modifier. It costs Corruption.png +1% corruption per banner regiment raised divided by the country's force limit.

Unlike other special unit categories, banner units spawn at full morale but only have 100 men when recruited and must be reinforced to full strength. They reinforce at 50% the Reinforce speed.png reinforcement rate (and is therefore a multiplier and not additive) *after all Reinforcement Speed modifiers*, which are half as effective. They cost only 25% manpower to reinforce, meaning that after the initial Corruption.png corruption cost of recruiting them, they will only consume 25 manpower for every 100 men reinforced. They also cost -50% the maintenance of their equivalent non-banner regiments.

Available Banners

The amount of banners raised per 16 primary-culture Development.png development is modified by:

Possible Manchu banners.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
  • Great Qing idea 1: Expand the Banners
  • Manchu idea 2: The Eight Banners
  • Jurchen idea 7: Jurchen Banner Armie
  • The Age of Absolutism ability Manchu Banners, available only to Manchu and Qing, gives Possible Manchu banners.png +50%.
  • Each age after the Age of Discovery.png age of discovery gives a cumulative Possible Manchu banners.png +50%.

For example, Mongol Empire in Age of Revolutions gets +150% Possible Manchu banners.png possible banners. With that, 1 banner regiment can be raised per 6.4 primary-culture Development.png development in a state.


Streltsy are a special unit category available only to countries with one of the three governments unique to East-Slavic-culture nations (Veche Republic, Russian Principality, and Tsardom), and are displayed with a silver background in the army view. Streltsy are always infantry and have Land fire damage.png +10% fire damage compared to other unit categories.

They can be recruited by using the government action "Raise Streltsy", which will raise a number of Streltsy infantry regiments equal to 20% of your force limit in your capital while also reducing War exhaustion.png war exhaustion by 2. However, over-reliance on Streltsy is penalized: for each 1% of the country's force limit composed of Streltsy, a Stability cost modifier.png +1% stability cost modifier malus is applied (this malus on the stability boost can be removed by disbanding the Streltsy units).


Cossacks are a special unit category available only to countries that have access to the Cossacks cossacks estate, and are displayed with a gold background in the army view. Cossacks can be infantry or cavalry and have a Shock damage.png +10% shock damage bonus.

Cossacks can be recruited using the macro-builder if the Cossack Estate estate interaction "Establish the Cossack Registers" Privilege is given, the number of regiments is limited to: . If given the estate interaction "Expand the Cossack Registers" Privilege this amount is repeated for a total of The number of regiments is instead limited to: . Over-reliance on Cossacks is penalized: for each 1% of the country's force limit composed of Cossacks , a Stability cost modifier.png +1% stability cost modifier malus is applied (this malus on the stability boost can be removed by disbanding the Cossacks units).


Janissaries are a special unit category available only to countries with the Ottoman government, and are displayed with a red background in the army view. They are elite infantry troops with Fire damage received.png −10% fire damage received, Shock damage received.png −10% shock damage received, and Army drill gain modifier.png +100% army drill gain modifier. However, unlike other special units, janissaries are Reinforce cost.png +100% costlier to reinforce.

Janissaries can be recruited Macro-builder or from the state interface of states comprising heathen provinces: each 10 heathen Development.png development in the state gives 1 janissary regiment. This costs Military power.png 10 military power per regiment raised. They do not use manpower when recuited. Over-reliance on janissaries may trigger the Janissary Coup disaster after the end of the Age of Discovery.png 'Age of Discovery'.


Rajputs are a special unit category available only to countries that have access to the Rajputs.png Rajputs estate, and are displayed with a blue background in the army view. Rajput are always infantry and have a Morale.png +5% morale bonus as well as a Army drill decay modifier.png −25% Regiment Drill loss modifier. Unlike other special units, they are Reinforce cost.png −50% cheaper to reinforce.

Rajputs can be recruited in the macrobuilder after activating the Rajputs estate privilege Privilege spawn rajput regiments.png "Recruit Rajput Regiments". The number of regiments is limited to:

Rajputs can be improved by the Rajputs estate privilege Privilege promote purbias.png "Enlist Purbias", which will give Rajput units +10% Icon fire.png fire damage, and an additional +5% Discipline.png discipline if the Government Reform "Purbias Register" is enacted.

Army professionalism and drilling

Cradle of Civilization introduced two new and linked concepts to the area of army management. Professionalism is an overall rating for a nation's land forces, while Drill level is specific to each regiment. Well drilled units are more effective in combat, and having units conduct drill is one of the primary means of building up a high level of professionalism, which unlocks new abilities for a nation's armies.

Army professionalism


Each nation's army has a professionalism level (from 0% to 100%) measuring how closely an army models a professional standing army versus the feudal levies of the Middle Ages or the heavy reliance on mercenaries of the beginning of this period. The level of army professionalism can be found at the top of the military tab in the country view. It has the following effects, scaling from 0% to 100%:

  • +10% Shock damage.png Shock damage dealt
  • +10% Land fire damage.png Fire damage dealt
  • +20% Siege ability.png Siege ability
  • -50% Regiment Drill loss (this applies to losses due to replacement manpower such as combat casualties or attrition and passive decay)

These modifiers apply to all land units, regardless of whether they are normal troops or mercenaries.

Scaling down from 0% to 50%, there are also bonuses for recruiting mercenaries:

  • −15% Mercenary cost.png Mercenary cost
  • +15% Mercenary manpower.png Mercenary manpower

Additionally, the value of army professionalism unlocks a new interface look and new abilities for armies every 20 points:

20% – Salaried Soldiers
May build supply depots: for 20 Military power.png military power, an army can establish a supply depot in a friendly-controlled province. The supply depot will increase the friendly Supply limit.png supply in the entire area by 50% and all friendly troops will Reinforce speed.png reinforce as if they were in their home territory (ie the local reinforcement rate will be 100% instead of 50% even outside the national borders). If the province is occupied by a hostile force, the depot will be destroyed, otherwise it lasts for 5 years.
40% – Regiment Mustering
May refill garrison: allows a unit to take some of its infantry strength to restore the National garrison growth.png garrison of a fort instantly, working in your own forts, as well as friendly and occupied enemy forts.
60% – Conscription Army
Regain manpower when disbanding: instead of the Manpower.png manpower disappearing, disbanded regiments now return their soldiers to the manpower pool.
80% – Permanent Army
Reduced morale damage taken by reserves.png −50% Reduced morale damage taken by reserve – regiments in the back row during a day of battle normally take passive morale damage in large ongoing battles, but will now take −50% as much.
100% – Professional Army
General cost −50% General cost
Army drill gain modifier.png +100% Army drill gain modifier

There are certain actions that will increase/decrease the army professionalism value.

  • Drilling armies (+1% per year if 100% of the force limit is drilling, to scale)
  • Recruiting General.png generals (+1% per general)
  • Recruiting mercenaries decreases professionalism by −5% per mercenary company
  • Hitting the Slacken Recruitment Standards button (adjacent to the buttons for activating and deactivating forts) will lower the army professionalism by −5% (to a minimum of 0%), but will give a nation two years' worth of Manpower.png manpower.

Certain events and decisions will influence army professionalism as well.


A muscovite army currently drilling.

Every (non-mercenary) regiment in a nation's army has an individual drill level (from 0% to 100%). Regiments with a high drill rating will be more effective in combat. Scaling with the level of a regiment's drill value the benefits are:

Shock damage.png +10% Shock damage
Land fire damage.png +10% Land fire damage
Fire damage received.png −25% Fire damage received
Shock damage received.png −25% Shock damage received

Scaling up to 100, the average drill value of the regiments of an entire army gives:

Movement speed.png +20% Movement speed

(This means mercenary regiments will slow down an otherwise fully-drilled army while not completely negating the movement speed gain.)

Drilling can be initiated by pressing the drill button at the bottom of the army interface. Any army with a General.png leader assigned can be drilled (unless it is composed entirely of mercenaries). While drilling it will incur the full maintenance cost regardless of the army maintenance slider on the budget screen, and its morale will be lowered severely. At the end of each month, the drill value of each non-mercenary regiment in the army will increase by a base of +0.83 per month, amplified by any drill gain modifiers.

Since mercenaries do not benefit from drilling, it is recommended to detach them from drilling armies if the maintenance slider is low, in order to save money.

During drilling, the General.png leader of the army also has a chance of gaining additional leader pips. This likelihood depends on how much of the army they are drilling, relative to the force limit (around 10% yearly chance at 100% of the force limit currently drilling in a single army led by the leader).

A regiment's drill value will decrease for two reasons. When a unit takes losses (from battle or attrition) and receives reinforcements, the new troops are considered un-drilled and will lower the regiments rating proportional to their numbers. (Example: an full strength regiment with 100% drill that takes 400 casualties will be at 60% drill when fully reinforced). When not drilling, it degrades over time(base −0.08 per month), and is modified by Regiment Drill Loss.

The speed at which armies are drilled can be improved with the following modifiers:

Army drill gain modifier.png Conditions
+40% Enacting certain decisions (in exchange for increased Land maintenance modifier.png maintenance)
+100% Janissary units
+100% from having maximum Army professionalism.png army professionalism
+50% Sikh Guru


Amphibious landings

Amphibious landings from transport fleets will always take 12 days[1] to complete if moving into non-hostile territory, and 36 days[1] if moving into hostile territory. Boarding a friendly transport from land will always take 12 days as well. These times are reduced by the maneuver rating of leaders.

Three way battles

If an army stops in a province in which two hostile forces are engaged in combat, it will wait on the sidelines and engage the victor once it emerges from battle. The victor from the first battle will now act as an attacker, and will suffer all terrain penalties appropriate for the province (unless that side controls a fort in the province, in which case it is the defender as normal). On the other hand, if only one of them is hostile, the newly arriving army will join the battle on the other side even if the non-enemy army is fighting in a different war.

Terra incognita

During peace time, only armies led by a conquistador may enter terra incognita provinces and explore them. In war time, all armies may enter terra incognita provinces if that province is controlled by hostile forces. If a terra incognita province is revealed while an army is attempting to move into it, its movement progress will immediately be updated, which can result in it teleporting into the province.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers).
  3. The 2% result from LAND_MAINTENANCE_FACTOR which is set by /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua to 0.25 divided by 12 and round after 3 digits.
  4. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: LAND_TECH_MAINTENANCE_IMPACT = 0.02

Ideas and Policies Idea groupsNational ideasPolicies
Ages and Institutions AgesInstitutions
Innovativeness and Technology InnovativenessTechnology