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For the area see Transoxiana.
Duchy rankTransoxiana
Primary culture
Uzbek (Altaic)

Capital province
Samarkand (454)

Iqta Government monarchy.png

State religion

Technology group
MuslimMuslim technology group
Transoxianian ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
+10% Morale of armies
−10% Cavalry cost

Cavalry combat ability.png Mawarannahr, the land Beyond the River

+20% Cavalry combat ability

Yearly prestige.png Threshold of Paradise

+1 Yearly prestige

Spy network construction.png Adept Diplomacy

+20% Spy network construction

Artillery cost.png Turkoman Cannoneers

−15% Artillery cost

Technology cost.png Scientific Patronage

−5% Technology cost

Trade power.png Entrepôt of the Silk Road

+25% Domestic trade power

Yearly legitimacy.png Chagatai Literature

+1 Yearly legitimacy
+1 Yearly horde unity

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

−10% Idea cost
Shield Transoxiana.png
Ulugh Beg rules Transoxiana from Samarkand, the great capital of his grandfather Timur, the conqueror who built an empire from Anatolia to Delhi. Our overlord and Ulugh Beg's father Shah Rukh rules his father's empire from Herat to our south, as the supreme authority over Transoxiana and all other Timurid realms.

Shah Rukh's reign is near its end, however, and the aging ruler has fallen ill during the past year. In the provinces his sons and grandsons are observing the court in Herat with great interest. Flag of Ajam Ajam under Muhammad bin Baysonqor is already independent in all but name. In Astarabad, Flag of Khorasan Khorasan, his brother Babur has built a small power base for himself, no doubt with the only goal to have a base in the coming succession struggles.

Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan is ruled by a lesser grandson while Flag of Fars Fars is in the hands of a 12 year old prince of the dynasty.

Meanwhile the Flag of Uzbek Uzbeks to the north are watching with interest, awaiting the day we will be weakened by the inevitable succession struggle. In the west other enemies of the Empire, such as the Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu and the millenarian Flag of Mushasha Mushasha, have made great inroads into what was once Timur's domain.

As 1444 draws to an end the fate of the empire seems uncertain. Should Shah Rukh recover he may well rule for a number of years yet, but the tension is tangible, every son and grandson has been waiting for the moment of the emperor's death their entire lives...

Transoxiana is a country that starts as vassal of the Flag of Timurids Timurids in Central Asia. They are almost equal to the Timurids at start of game. They are one of most difficult vassals to handle for the Timurids and the player should act with caution when playing the Timurids.

Events[edit | edit source]


Msg event.pngUlugh Beg's Observatory

Our illustrious monarch, Ulugh Beg, has indicated that he desires to build a grand observatory so that Samarkand will become the center of astronomical learning for the entire world. His beliefs are summarized by the words he wishes to have carved on its walls: 'Religions rise and fall, empires crumble into dust, but the works of science are for all time'. But however noble his intentions, such projects are very costly. Should we build the observatory?

This event happens only once during a campaign.
Trigger conditions

The year is before 1465 and the country:

Mean time to happen
  • 63 months

Event button 547.png
Build it!

The country:

  • lose Expenses.png1 years of income
  • gain Administrative power.png50 administrative power
  • gain Diplomatic power.png50 diplomatic power
  • gain Military power.png50 military power
  • gain Innovativeness.png 3 innovativeness
Event button 547.png
We have neither the time nor the money for such foolishness!

The country:

  • lose Yearly prestige.png5 prestige.

Decisions[edit | edit source]


Execute decision.pngForm Mughal Empire

$MONARCH$ has begun to lay the foundation of his new empire. Although inferior in numbers, his well-disciplined troops have managed to achieve several decisive victories against the Sultans of India. The battle of $CAPITAL$ became the first great victory in a series of territorial expansions and, with time, the empire of the Mughals could stretch over the larger part of the Indian plateau.

Potential requirements

The country:


Flag of Mughals Mughals does not exist
The country:


Execute decision.pngReform Great Yuan

The heirs of Kublai Khan once ruled over all Chinese and Mongol lands. Let us rise to reclaim the legacy of the old Yuan and crush the weaker lineages that have attempted to claim the Empire that is our birthright!

Potential requirements

Flag of Yuan Yuan does not exist.
The country:

If the country is AI-controlled, then:

  • it can not be a custom nation.
  • it can not be a former colonial nation.
  • it must own at least 8 cities.

The country:

  • is not at war.
  • is not a subject nation other than a tributary state.
  • has a stability of at least 2.
  • owns its core provinces Xilin Gol (723), Beijing (1816), Qaraqorum (2190), and Xuanhua (2136).
  • owns or has a non-tributary subject own all provinces of Mongol, Korchin, Khalkha, and Oirat culture.

If Mandate of Heaven.png Mandate of Heaven DLC is active and there is an Emperor of China:

else if Common Sense.png Common Sense DLC is active:

  • the country must be an Empire rank empire.


  • the country must have 1000 development


If Beijing (1816):


  • Beijing (1816) leaves the HRE.
  • the emperor of the HRE:
    • loses Imperial authority.png1 imperial authority.
    • gets the opinion modifier “Removed provinces from the Empire” towards the country, worth Opinion.png−50 opinion with a yearly decay of 1.

Beijing (1816):

  • becomes the capital of the country.
  • gains Base tax.png1 base tax, Production.png1 production, and Manpower.png1 manpower.
  • is renamed to Khanbaliq.
  • has its capital renamed to Khanbaliq.

The country:

If Flag of Yuan Yuan:

Xilin Gol (723):

  • is renamed to Xanadu.
  • has its capital renamed to Xanadu.

Xuanhua (2136):

  • is renamed to Zhongdu.
  • has its capital renamed to Zhongdu.

Execute decision.pngClaim Timur's Legacy

As the descendant of Timur Lenk, the great conqueror of Iran, Transoxiana and Khorasan, it is our duty to reclaim his legacy. With the traditional Timurid Strongholds under our control we can at last proclaim ourselves the head of Timur's dynasty, and the leader of all of the Ghurkani princes.

Potential requirements
  • Playing with normal or historical nations.
  • This decision was not enacted before.
  • The country:
  • If the country is AI-controlled, then:
    • it is not a custom nation.
    • it is not a former colonial nation
  • Flag of Timurids Timurids do not exist.
  • The country:
    • is not a subject nation other than a tributary state.
    • is not at war.
    • owns and cores the provinces Samarkand and Herat.
    • owns and cores all of either one of the following sets of provinces:
      • Isfahan, Qom, and Shiraz.
      • Kabul, Merv, and Teheran.

  • The country:
    • moves its capital to Samarkand.
    • becomes Flag of Timurids Timurids.
    • gets new missions.
    • leaves the Holy Roman Empire, unless it is an elector or the Emperor.
    • changes government rank to Empire rank Empire.
    • gains Yearly prestige.png 25 prestige
    • gets country modifier “Increased Centralization” for 10 years, giving the following effects:
      • Autonomy.png −0.05 Monthly autonomy change
      • National unrest.png +1 National unrest
    • changes its primary culture to Uzbek.
    • gains a permanent claim on all unowned, non-core provinces in the Persia and Khorasan regions.
    • gains a permanent claim on all unowned, non-core provinces in the following areas: Transoxiana, Arys, Transcaspia, Khiva, Ferghana, Khuttalan, Basra, Iraq Arabi, Al Jazira, Armenia, Kurdistan, and Erzurum.
    • gets country event “New Traditions & Ambitions”, unless it has custom ideas.

Strategy[edit | edit source]

Strategy The below is one of many player suggested strategies for Transoxiana. Bear in mind, due to the dynamic nature of the game, it may unfold differently for other players.

Opening[edit | edit source]

Transoxiana starts as a vassal of the fading Flag of Timurids Timurids. With their solid idea set and good starting development, acquiring support for the player's independence should be easy. Cozy up to any rivals of the Timurids, especially the Flag of Mamluks Mamluks or Flag of Ajam Ajam and don't forget to ally other vassals of the Timurids. With the support of the player's allies, declare independence from the Timurids and steamroll their armies with the help of the player's allies. Reclaim Transoxianann cores and Herat (and of course independence) once you have enough warscore. Don't forget to also demand war reparations and

Forming the Timurids[edit | edit source]

Declare war on the other Gurkani princes (i.e. Flag of Khorasan Khorasan, Flag of Ajam Ajam, Flag of Sistan Sistan, Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan, Flag of Fars Fars, etc.) and capture the necessary provinces to form the Timurids. The player should also feel free to attack the hordes surrounding them, especially Flag of Uzbek Uzbek, as they contain some Transoxianan cores. The player should form the Timurids, the very thing that the player destroyed, and should use the handy permanent claims to attack Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu and even the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans if they are weakened. The player should also consider changing to the new Timurid ideas, as they are slightly more military-focused than the Transoxianan ideas, but the Transoxianan ideas do contain useful bonuses such as -10% idea cost. Either way, the choice is up to the player. If the Ottomans are too strong, consider allying them, as the Mamluks have a "Historical Rival" modifier with the Timurids and will refuse any alliance. Alternatively, the player can remain Transoxiana, but they do so at the loss of permanent claims over a vast area and free empire rank.

Forming Mughals or Yuan[edit | edit source]

Once a (rather large) power base has been established in Persia and Central Asia and most of the Timurid permanent claims have been reconquered, the player should consider forming either the Flag of Mughals Mughals or Flag of Yuan Yuan. For the Mughals, the player should take the Timurid missions "Conquer Delhi" and "The Riches of India" so they get claims on many provinces needed to form the Mughals, which are Roh, Lahore, Central Doab, Sirhind, and Delhi. The Mughals have a superb idea set and it is highly recommended that the player use their ideas instead of Timurid or Transoxianan ones. Upon forming the Mughals, the player will also get permanent claims on all of India, making conquest easy. Beware that if you have not conquered the Timurid permanent claims, they will become regular claims expiring after 25 years. An alternative strategy is to form Yuan. Forming Yuan, however, takes more time and effort, but is rewarded with permanent claims on the entire China subcontinent and, in the author's opinion, the best idea set in the game, combining powerful military bonuses with a total -30% reduction in core creation cost, the highest in the game (from 5% Administrative Efficiency and -25% Core Creation Cost)2. To restore the Yuan Dynasty, though, the player will have to own all Chahar, Khalka, Mongol, and Uyghur lands, along with the provinces Kaifeng, Xilin Gol, Beijing, Qaraqorum, Xuanhua, and Xianyang. The player must also be the Emperor of China if they have the Mandate of Heaven DLC or be Empire rank, which is conveniently granted by becoming the Timurids. To be the Emperor of China, the player must be part of the Pagan or Eastern religious group. If the player picked Religious ideas, they should force-convert themselves to Vajrayana, gaining a Deus Vult CB on basically everyone else in the world. Other religions to consider are Confucian for the powerful Harmony bonuses or Tengri for the Syncretic Faith. Once the player is either the Mughals or Yuan, they should rapidly conquer the provinces they have permanent claims on and perhaps go to conquer the world!

Idea groups[edit | edit source]

Administrative ideas are highly recommended, as the player should be doing a lot of conquering throughout the game. Espionage and Aristocratic ideas have some useful bonuses, but combined with the ideas of all nations mentioned in this guide (Transoxiana, Mughals, Timurids, or Yuan) give a policy that boosts cavalry combat ability by 20%. Combined with the national ideas of these nations which each give +20% cavalry combat ability, along with Aristocratic ideas that give another +10% cavalry combat ability, this leads to an impressive +50% cavalry combat ability or +60% with Quality ideas. Other idea groups to be considered are Influence for the -20% Aggressive Expansion reduction, Quantity for more troops, Offensive for better general pips and Religious to convert all the provinces and still stay Legalistic.

Achievements[edit | edit source]

True Heir of Timur icon
Starting as a Timurid subject, form the Mughals and conquer India by 1550.
Country guides

Eastern technology group Eastern.png Jerusalem.png Jerusalem Kharabakh.png Kharabakh
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Afghanistan.png Afghanistan Ajam.png Ajam Arabia.png Arabia Ardabil.png Ardabil Hisn Kayfa.png Hisn Kayfa Hormuz.png Hormuz Oman.png Oman Mushasha.png Mushasha Timurids.png Timurids Qara Qoyunlu.png Qara Qoyunlu
Indian technology group Indian.png Assam.png Assam Bahmanis.png Bahmanis Bengal.png Bengal Orissa.png Orissa
Chinese technology group Chinese.png Bali.png Bali Brunei.png Brunei Dai Viet.png Dai Viet Japan.png Japan Khmer.png Khmer Korea.png Korea Majapahit.png Majapahit Malaya.png Malaya Pagarruyung.png Pagarruyung Pasai.png Pasai Sunda.png Sunda
Nomadic technology group Nomadic.png Jianzhou.png Jianzhou Uzbek.png Uzbek Mongolia.png Mongolia

Central African technology group Central African.png Kuba.png KubaMutapa.png Mutapa
East African technology group East African.png Ethiopia.png EthiopiaMogadishu.png Mogadishu
Muslim technology group Muslim.png The Mamluks.png MamluksMorocco.png MoroccoTlemcen.png TlemcenTunis.png Tunis
West African technology group West African.png Air.png AirMali.png Mali

Western technology group Western.png United States.png United States
Mesoamerican technology group Mesoamerican.png Maya.png Maya
North American technology group North American.png Caddo.png Caddo Cherokee.png Cherokee Iroquois.png Iroquois

Andean technology group Andean.png Chachapoya.png Chachapoya Cusco.png Cusco Muisca.png Muisca
South American technology group South American.png Mapuche.png Mapuche