Subject nations are semi-independent subordinate nations that surrender their economic, diplomatic and/or military power to another country in exchange for protection by their overlord. It is possible to see a subject's nation information by selecting the country icon on the subjects tab. The types of subject nations range from the primarily economic Trade company to the military-focused March. All subjects (except trade companies) have a liberty desire that determines their loyalty towards their liege.
Unless stated otherwise, all subject nations also receive the following "Subject nation" malus :
|−3||Land force limit|
|−6||Naval force limit|
Vassal[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Vassal
Vassals are the most basic form of subject nations. They are required to pay a portion of their tax income (10% at base) to their overlord but do not transfer trade power to their overlord like other particular subject types(vassals of a merchant republic transfer 50% of their trade power to their overlord if Wealth of Nations is active). While vassals may have control over their own territory and military, they also automatically join any conflict their overlord enters into. Vassals also receive a malus of +50% Development cost.
Vassalization can occur militarily by forcing it upon a defeated enemy in a war. Diplomatic vassalage can occur if a military alliance exists and relations are high (above 190). Vassals cannot declare war, but can fabricate claims that either they or their overlord deems as 'Vital Interest'. Vassals with over 50% liberty desire can request a support of independence from other nations, and break free through an independence war. Vassals with over 50% liberty desire are also more active diplomatically as to forming their own alliances with other rebellious subjects of their overlord and setting more provinces as those of interest.
After a nation has been a vassal of another country for at least ten years, their overlord can begin diplomatically integrating them into the overlord's domain. This results in the vassal's annexation.
March[edit | edit source]
|Available only with the Art of War DLC enabled.|
- Main article: March
A march is a militaristic vassal that cannot be annexed and does not pay taxes to the overlord, but has -15% liberty desire and gets significant bonuses to its armed forces.
March status can be revoked and the subject turned into a simple vassal but at the cost of stability and relations loss.
Without the DLC, marches can only be gained through special events, such as the subjugation of Moldavia to Poland.
While having less than 25% of the development of their overlord, Marches receive the following modifiers :
- +30% land force limit
- +30% naval force limit
- +25% national manpower
- +20% manpower recovery speed
- +20% fort defensiveness
- -20% fort maintenance
- -20% land maintenance
- -20% naval maintenance
Client state[edit | edit source]
|Available only with the Art of War DLC enabled.|
- Main article: Client state
Client states are highly loyal, custom vassals. They can be formed once a country reaches diplomatic tech level 23 or of the "Client State Act" Mercenary- Influence Policy is enacted from any province or provinces that the player has control over and is on the same continent as their capital or borders an existing client state or has a land connection to the capital.
Mechanically they function like a ordinary vassal but with a permanent -25% to their liberty desire.
Generally, any province within two tiles by land can be added to a client state, including over straits. The first province that a new client state is given is automatically designated as the capital, and the culture in that province will become the primary culture of the new client state. The client state will have its creator's state religion.
It is possible to customize the flag, the name and the map colour of a client state based on a set of flag templates and images. With Common Sense, this can be done at any time after it's created.
Personal union[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Personal union
Junior partners in a personal union share the same ruler as that of the leading country. Like vassals, junior partners of a personal union will automatically go to war if their overlord does, but they do not have to provide their overlord with a percentage of their monthly income, and only get a small +10 relations boost with their overlord. The junior retains any subjects it had, except other unions, which the overlord inherits.
Personal unions can occur when a ruler dies without a legal heir. In this case, if a royal marriage partner shares the same dynasty as the deceased ruler, it becomes the senior partner in a union. A succession war may erupt between rivals or valid partners. Additionally, a claim throne casus belli can be used on nations with a disputed succession (weak or no heir) of the same dynasty that the player has a royal marriage with.
Personal union partners can be inherited or integrated provided the union has been stable for fifty years. Diplomatic integration annexes the junior partner at the cost of diplomatic monarch points. Inheritance automatically annexes the junior partner with no autonomy, but occurs only upon ruler death. The probability of inheritance increases with the senior partner's diplomatic reputation and stability and decreases with the junior partner's number of provinces.
A personal union can end upon the death of the senior ruler when the junior partner has a negative opinion of its senior. If this occurs, the former senior partner will get a "Restoration of Union" casus belli on the former junior partner, allowing the union to be reinstated militarily.
Some nations can get a "Restoration of Union" CB against countries that they never had a union with in the first place, such as Austria, which can receive this casus belli against Bohemia and Hungary as a mission.
Only nations that have one of the Christian denominations as their state religion are able to form personal unions.
Colonial nation[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Colonial nation
Colonial nations represent the distant New World colonial territories of Old World. They will automatically form once five cored colonial provinces exist inside a single colonial region. Once formed, colonial nations will take control of any province that would otherwise be owned by their overlord in a given colonial region, even if the province is uncored or would otherwise cause extreme overextension. They do not occupy a relation slot.
Colonial nations pay a portion of half their production and trade income to their overlord, based on the tariff efficiency. Additionally, colonial nations transfer 50% of their trade power to the overlord.
When created, the colonial nation's flag is generated based on the mother country's flag and the colonial region the new Colonial Nation is located in. For example, a nation in the Mexico colonial region will have a yellow flag, while one in the Eastern North America colonial region will have a light-blue one. With Common Sense, the name can be changed after creation (but unlike client states, nothing else can be customized).
If Leviathan is enabled, there will be three designation after formation which are Crown Colony, Private Enterprise, Self-Governing Colony. Every designation provides different boni to themselfes and their overlord. Those designation can be upgraded to provide more bonus. However disloyal colonies won't provide manpower, sailors, tariffs. Colony Designation can be changed for 1000.
Commercial Enterprise[edit | edit source]
The Commercial enterprise is a unique subject available only to England via the event "The East India Company", which can create the East India Company as this type of subject. Additionally to normal subject interactions, Commercial Enterprises have most of the Colony interactions available. A Commercial Enterprise may autonomously wage war, unless this privilege is revoked via diplomacy. They do not occupy a relation slot. Like Colonies, a Commercial Enterprise pays a portion of half their production and trade income to their overlord, based on the tariff efficiency and transfers 50% of their trade power to the overlord.
Commercial enterprises additionally receive the following boni :
- +20% Goods produced modifier
- +20% Ship trade power
- +10% Ship trade power propagation
- +10% Navy tradition from protecting trade
The Overlord of a Commercial enterprise receives the following boni :
If a Commercial Enterprise has at least 10 provinces, their overlord additionally receives :
Trade company[edit | edit source]
|Available only with the Wealth of Nations DLC enabled.|
- Main article: Trade company
A trade company is a collection of overseas provinces that exchanges tax and manpower for trade, maritime and production benefits. They are not actually nations.
A province in a trade company gets autonomy-reduced tax income, sailors, manpower and land force limit like a territory, but less autonomy impact on production income and double the trade power and 0.5 naval force limit. Additionally, goods produced remains unaffected by cultural intolerance, religious intolerance is ignored, and the province does not contribute to religious unity.
Trade companies may be formed by nations that own at least one province in a territory which is on a different subcontinent from their capital and not in a colonial region . They differ from colonial nations in the Americas and Australia in that they are not separate governments, as all territories remain part of the mother country. Provinces in trade company must belong to a territory - adding them to a state will automatically remove them from a trade company, which entails the same -200% goods produced modifier which manually removing one does. Provinces can be added or removed from a trade company at any time, except when the 5-year goods produced modifier for removal is present.
Tributary[edit | edit source]
Please help with verifying or updating this section. It was last verified for version 1.32.
|Available only with the Mandate of Heaven DLC enabled.|
Tributaries are a loose form of subject relationship available to overlords who fulfill at least one of the following conditions:
- has a state religion in the Eastern religion group
- has the Chinese technology group
- has the Polynesian technology group
- is a nomad nation
- has the Feudal Tribe government reform
- has the Celestial Empire government reform
- has the nobility privilege “Grant Power to the Bashorun”
Tributaries do not occupy a relation slot. They retain full diplomatic independence and may start wars and have subjects (except other tributaries) of their own. Tributaries do not suffer from the usual "Subject Nation" penalties.
The overlord receives a call to arms if the tributary is attacked (unless if by another tributary of the same overlord), but does not have to accept. Each year, the overlord may demand a tribute of money, manpower, or any of the 3 types of monarch points. The tribute is paid annually on January 2. Tribute type demand must be selected before January 1. The default tribute is money. If the tributary pays the tribute, trust increases slightly; if it refuses, trust falls significantly. AI always pays tribute when Liberty Desire is below 50% and refuses otherwise.
Monetary tribute is 12.5% of annual income, manpower tribute is 25% of annual gain, and monarch point tribute is 1 per 33 developments (rounded down) and capped at 12 for 400 or more development. If monetary tribute would be below 1 ducat, or monarch point would be below 1 point, they can't be selected. 
Either party may renounce the tributary status at will, unless they have a truce. If the overlord cancels the tributary relation while having at least 30 trust towards their subject, a 5-year two-way truce will be created. If a tributary renounces their status, no truce will be created, but they lose −1 stability; this can be circumvented by refusing tribute until the overlord breaks the agreement on their own.
Tributaries can be established diplomatically or via war, however the Emperor of China additionally gains a "Force Tributary" CB against all their neighbors.
If the overlord is annexed, any tributaries will be transferred to the annexing nation; this can give tributaries even to nations that normally wouldn't be able to have them.
The factors that influence an AI nation's desire to accept an Establish Tributary offer are:
|Attitude towards proposer||Hostile: -1000|
|Opinion towards proposer||+1 per 4 positive points (rounded down)|
|-1 per 4 negative points (rounded up)|
|Proposer's diplomatic reputation||+2 per positive point|
|-2 per negative point|
|AI nation's government rank||-20/-100 Kingdom/Empire|
|AI nation's development||-0.5 per development (rounded up)|
|Proposer economic base compared to target nation||+90 to -90|
|Proposer military power compared to target nation||+90 to -90|
|AI nation has subject of its own||-1000|
|Are not neighbors||-1000|
|Distance between borders||-0.5 per distance between borders (defunct but still displayed)|
|Proposer is Celestial Empire or has horde government with rank Empire||+10|
Strategy[edit | edit source]
For a tributary overlord, sending manpower to tributary subjects at war can often be the cheapest way to decrease liberty desire and maintain the more value tribute income in the form of monarch powers. It can thus be helpful to set large tributary countries as "special interest" (right-click on country flag in provincial interface) and receive notification for wars by these tributaries.
For establishing tributary subject of AI nation, threatened attitude gives the most significant +100. (Strangely, friendly attitude does not give any modifier.) The attitude goes away at high opinion. Thus the optimal opinion with the threatened attitude is around 0. Player should avoid improving relation for too long in that case.
Liberty Desire modifiers from Demand Additional Tribute and Demand Artifacts decay independently, so alternating between them allows Liberty Desire to drop down more quickly.
Daimyo[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Japan#Daimyo & Shogunate
Daimyo are a unique form of vassal for the shogun of Japan. They may ally with and fight other daimyo, but not foreign countries. They do not occupy a relation slot, and the shogun has several special vassal interactions for them. If the Shogun aquires new vassals they will automatically be turned into Daimyos. Like regular vassals, Daimyos pay a fraction of their Tax income to their Overlord, unlike regular vassals however they do not suffer a +50% Development cost.
Daimyos have a increased liberty desire of +10%
The Shogun receives the following boni :
For each daimyo at peace:
|−2%||Stability cost modifier (maximum of −20%)|
|+0.1||Yearly legitimacy (maximum of +1)|
For each daimyo with the same level of isolationism as the Shogun:
For each daimyo with a different level of isolationism as the Shogun:
The above isolationism modifiers combined cannot exceed either −1 or +1 yearly prestige.
Note: outside nations can enforce peace on two warring daimyos without calling the shogun or its vassals to war, effectively providing a way for outside powers to get easy land on Japan.
Appanage[edit | edit source]
Only the starting subjects of France, as well as possibly Alençon if they are released via the "The Duke of Alencon" event, are appanages. Appanages may wage war against each other and their overlord has several additional interactions available. Appanages are not actually tied to France, so should another nation fully annex France, that nation will become the new overlord of their appanages.
Appanages have a increased liberty desire of +35%, they pay a fraction of their tax income to their overlord, but they do not suffer from the usual "Subject Nation" penalties.
Eyalet[edit | edit source]
Eyalets are special subjects available only to the Ottomans and Rûm. They do not occupy a relation slot and they pay a fraction of their Tax income to their overlord, but they do not suffer from the usual "Subject Nation" penalties.
The usual way to get eyalets is via the Justify Invasion diplomatic option, which enables the "Establish Eyalet" peace option. Besides that, normal vassals can be turned into eyalets via the "Promote to Eyalet" diplomatic action. However, the Ottomans also get several events which can turn their conquered territories into eyalets.
An eyalet is not automatically called into wars their overlord declares, but can be called in via diplomacy at the cost of 20 favors. Eyalets that are called to war act as allies, meaning they can sign a separate peace. They are only called into all current wars; if any more wars are declared after calling them in, they won't join that war and also can't be called into it, because they are already at war. Furthermore eyalets can't be forced to break a truce. If they are called into wars, they will only join those where they do not have a truce with the enemy war leader.
To annex an eyalet it must first be diplomatically "reigned in", which turns them into a core cyalet. A core eyalet can be diplomatically annexed, but can't at all be called into wars. The 10 year cooldown before the subject can be annexed only starts after turning them into a core eyalet.
Eyalets whose development is close to, or even surpasses 200, will be exceedingly difficult to rein in. Being at 200 opinion and 100 trust will only give them 50 reasons to be reined in, while every 4 points of development will give them 1 reason to refuse being reined in. Thus an eyalet with 200 development or above will never accept being reined in if their overlord does not stack diplomatic reputation (which gives 3 reasons to be reined in per point). Furthermore, every point of liberty desire will reduce reining in acceptance by the same value. High development eyalets will thus be even harder to rein in. If one wishes to integrate their eyalets, it is advised to not turn their core eyalets which are granted via missions or events back into eyalets.
Normal eyalets calculate their liberty desire from army and economy solely by their own development compared to the overlord's. Core eyalets however calculate it by overlord compared to all core eyalets together. Thus ironically a core eyalet usually has much higher liberty desire.
All eyalet subjects receive:
Trade Protectorate[edit | edit source]
Trade Protectorates are special subjects available to all nations that have the Thalassocracy government reform, as well as England via two special reforms. Trade protectorates are established diplomatically. They cant be annexed and will only join their overlords wars if asked diplomatically. They do not occupy a relation slot and gain −10% liberty desire. They pay a fraction of their Tax income to their Overlord, but they do not suffer from the usual "Subject Nation" penalties. They also transfer 50% of their trade power to their overlord. Trade protectorates may diplomatically declare their independence at any time, at the cost of −1 stability. They do not declare a war for this.
Trade Protectorates receive the following modifiers :
If a Trade Protectorate has less than 200 total development, it additionally receives :
The overlord of a Trade protectorate receives :
Liberty desire[edit | edit source]
Please help with verifying or updating this section. It was last verified for version 1.25.
All subject nations have a liberty desire between 0 and 100, indicating their wish for independence.
- Below 50 a subject state is loyal: it pays taxes/tariffs to its overlord and takes an active part in all wars.
- Above 50 liberty desire, a subject becomes disloyal, refusing to pay taxes while being unhelpful in wars by only defending its own territory. Disloyal subjects readily accept support for their independence from foreign nations and make alliances with each other, and may declare an independence war if they have sufficient strength. In rare cases, a disloyal subject may still have a Friendly attitude toward its overlord; this means it will not accept requests to support its independence or alliances from fellow subjects, but does not otherwise alter its behavior.
- At 100 liberty desire, a state is rebellious, and will, at least in theory, declare its independence at the slightest opportunity.
Liberty desire depends on the sum of the following factors:
- The relative army size of the subject compared to its overlord. There is +75 liberty desire for having 100% of the overlord's forces, scaling proportionately (e.g. +37.5 at 50%).
- The combined strength of all vassals, marches, and client states is used for their liberty desire.
- Personal union partners, daimyos, and colonial nations only consider their individual strengths.
- Additionally, nations allied with or supporting the liberty of a subject nation will have their army strength added to that specific subject. Other subjects will not have their army strength increased, unless their independence is also supported.
- A base modifier depending on type of subject: −25 for client states, −15 for marches, +10 for Japanese daimyo; 0 for vassals, colonies and personal union partners.
- −50 for historical friends.
- −50 if recently defeated in an independence war (decreasing over time).
- −10 for each use of the “Placate Local Rulers” subject interaction (the effect is capped at −100 and it decreases over time by 1 per year)
- −5 for a royal marriage.
- −5 for having the same ruling dynasty.
- −5 for each loan of the subject which was paid back with the “Pay Off Debt” subject interaction (the sum is capped at −100 and it decreases over time by 1 per year)
- −5 per each development point improved in subject's province (the sum is capped at −100 and it decreases over time by 1 per year).
- −5/−10% for holding Alhambra (only with )
- −3 per point of diplomatic reputation.
- −0.5 per province development granted in a peace deal or with the “Grant province” subject interaction (the sum is capped at −100 and it decreases over time by 0.1 per month).
- ±0.4 per point of trust below/above 50 (min −20 at 100 trust, max +20 at 0 trust)
- −0.1 for each point of positive relations (max −20), +0.2 for each point of negative relations (max +40).
- +0.2 for colonies, per point of the colonial nation's administrative efficiency.
- +1 per point of the overlord's war exhaustion for colonial nations.
- +1 for colonies, per point of tariff rate.
- +1 per each prestige below 0 (-50 prestige equals +50 liberty desire)
- +2 per point of development of defected provinces.
- +5 for each level the overlord's diplomatic technology is behind the subject's.
- +10 subject nation is a Steppe nomads.
- +50 for historical rivals.
Certain ideas affect liberty desire in subjects:
|In patch 1.35 no ideas and policies have the modifier “liberty desire”|
Liberty desire from subjects development[edit | edit source]
Some subject types get liberty desire from their development:
|Liberty desire per point of development||Subject type|
|+0.25||vassals, client states, marches, Appanages|
|+0.175||tributaries and Trade protectorates|
|+0.1||colonial nations and Eyalets|
This is modified by:
- −33% “Austrian Archduchy” government reform
- −33% “Elevate Tributary Relations” celestial reform for the emperor of china
- −33% completing the mission Dominate North America (available to Scandinavia if formed by Norway)
- −33% the age of revolutions ability “Anti-Revolutionary Zeal”
- −25% completing the khmer mission Subjugate Ayutthaya
- −20% completing the danish mission [Root.GetAdjective] Absolutism
- −15% completing the neapolitan mission Crown of Aragon
- +25% between 20% and 29% crownland
- +50% between 10% and 19% crownland
- +100% between 1% and 9% crownland
- +150% below 1% crownland
Certain ideas affect liberty desire from subjects development:
Subject interactions [edit | edit source]
Please help with verifying or updating this section. It was last verified for version 1.30.
The subject interactions can be accessed by clicking on a subject nations in the subjects tab in country interface. Most subject interactions are limited to some subject types.
- Subject interactions require Common Sense DLC unless another DLC (or none) is indicated.
- Since tributaries don't exist without Mandate of Heaven DLC, that is also needed for them.
- Client states are special kinds of vassal or march and so have most of the same interactions.
- Daimyos technically count as vassals but for the sake of this table they are noted seperately. Their unique interactions also require Mandate of Heaven DLC.
- Liberty Desire modifiers from most sources, such as events and province defections, decay at ±0.1% per month. Toggled liberty desire modifiers (embargo rivals, support royalists, subsidize armies, divert trade, send officers) last until cancelled. Liberty desire from tariffs is permanent.
|Block/Allow Settlement Growth||Subject cannot use a colonist to promote settlement growth. Using Allow Settlement Growth allows it again.||Colonist which are already promoting settlement growth automatically stop one day after settlement growth is blocked. Doesn't prevent the colonization of uncolonized provinces.|
|Contribute to Capital||Subject's province with the highest development loses 2 development of its best category (biased towards tax and then production). The overlord's capital gains 1 of the same type.|
|Customize Subject||Subject is a client state or colonial nation||Change the subject's name and/or (for client states) its map colour and coat of arms.|
|Demand Additional Tribute||Liberty desire less than 50%|
|Embargo Rivals||Has at least one rival|
|Enforce Culture||Liberty desire less than 50%|
|Enforce Religion||Decays by 1% per year (around 0.1% each month)|
|Fortify Subject||Fort is built, paid for by the overlord|
|Grant Core/Claim||Core/claim is granted to the subject||A permanent claim granted will still be permanent.|
|Pay Off Debt||
|Placate Local Rulers||Has positive prestige|
|Place Relative on Throne||
|Replace Governor||Choice between 4/2/2, 2/4/2 or 2/2/4. Does not affect the colony's republican tradition.|
|Seize Land||Cannot seize capital|
|Send Additional Troops||Subject is at war|
|Siphon Income||Subject has positive opinion of overlord|
|Start War in Colony||
||This only works against colonial nations and primitive countries. It can't be used against countries which reformed their religion/government.|
|Modify Subject Relationship||See "Colonial nation#Modify colony relationship" for a list of available modifications.
The Commercial Enterprise has access to the same list as the Self governing Colony.
|Change Colonial Type||Requires Golden Century||At the cost of 1000 Ducats, the colony is changed to one of the other types.
Can only be done once every 20 years.
|Grant Administrative Autonomy||Costs 20 reform progress|
Trade companies have no subject interactions per se, but they do have one toggle button in the subjects tab:
- Promote Investments: +50% Trade power in all provinces owned by the trade company, +0.03% yearly inflation
Enhance provinces of subject nations[edit | edit source]
|Available only with the Rights of Man DLC enabled.|
It is possible for the overlord to construct buildings in the provinces of subjects, and to develop them. Each time the overlord develops a subject's province, their liberty desire is reduced by 5%, decaying by +0.1% per month. However, since this increases the subject's development, it also increases base liberty desire by +0.25 for those subject types that have development-based liberty desire (i.e. not personal unions), and can increase their liberty desire based on relative power.
Military focus[edit | edit source]
Please help with verifying or updating this section. It was last verified for version 1.30.
|Available only with the Art of War DLC enabled.|
A nation can set its subject's military focus to any of the following, which will determine how they behave in wars. If the subject has more than 50% liberty desire, they will always behave as though set to passive.
|No focus||The subject will decide its own strategies.|
|Supportive||The subject will seek to attach to friendly armies.|
|Aggressive||The subject will be aggressive towards enemies, seeking battles in enemy territory.|
|Available only with the Rights of Man DLC enabled.|
|Passive||This will make the subject stay with armies in their own territory, and defend there. Unless escaping a larger threat.|
|Defensive||This will make the subject defend its allies' territory. (Recommended for stronger subjects)|
|Siege||This will make the subject use its armies to siege down hostile fortresses and not seek any battles.|
Footnotes[edit | edit source]
- ↑ See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: variables with TRIBUTE_BASE_.
- ↑ See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: DIPLOMATIC_ACTION_TRIBUTARY_ACCEPTANCE_PER_DEVELOPMENT.
- ↑ See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua: DIPLOMATIC_ACTION_TRIBUTARY_EMPIRE_FACTOR.
- ↑ See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/subject_types/00_subject_types.txt
|Diplomacy||Diplomacy • Diplomatic feedback • Envoy • Espionage|
|Other||Defender of the Faith • Great power • Hegemon • Prestige • Regions|
|Political structures||Emperor of China • Holy Roman Empire • Papacy|
|Relations||Personal union • Relations • Subject nation|
|Concepts||Corruption • Governing capacity • Overextension • Power projection • Rebellion • Regions • Stability • States and territories|
|Court||Advisors • Consort • Monarch power • National focus • Ruler • Ruler personalities|
|Estates and Factions||Base estates • Cossacks estates • Dharma estates • Estates • Factions|
|Events and Missions||Decisions • Disasters • Events • List of decisions • Missions|
|Goverment||Absolutism • Culture • Government • Government rank • Modifiers • Policies|
|Province mechanics||Autonomy • Buildings • Canal • Capital • Core • Province|
|Religions||Christian denominations • Eastern denominations • Muslim denominations • Other denominations • Pagan denominations • Religion|
|Specific governments||Native council • Parliament • Steppe hordes|
|Colonisation||Exploration • Colonisation • Colonial nation • Tariffs • Trade company|
|Economy||Debase currency • Development • Economy • Privateering • Production • Raid coasts • Tax|
|Trade||Trade • Trade company • Trade goods • Trade nodes|
|Customization||Nation designer • Random New World|
|Other||Achievements • Luck • Score system|
|Ideas and Policies||Idea groups • National ideas • Policies|
|Ages and Institutions||Ages • Institutions|
|Innovativeness and Technology||Innovativeness • Technology|
|Declaring war||Alliance • Casus belli • Claim • Peace • War exhaustion • Warfare|
|Defense||Fort • Zone of control|
|Land warfare||Army • Condottieri • Discipline • Drilling • Land units • Land warfare • Manpower • Militarisation • Mercenaries • Professionalism|
|Naval warfare||Flagship • Naval blockade • Naval doctrine • Naval units • Naval warfare • Navy • Sailors|
|Other||Force limit • Military leader • Military tradition|