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== Objectives and prerequisites ==
The main benefit of colonialism is to improve the income generation and military logistics of the colonizing country. This is because colonized territories overseas can provide large boosts in [[Trade income|trade income]] to the colonizing nation, as well as provide staging points for naval and land warfare around the world.
This is accomplished primarily by creating [[colonial nation]]s, which are AI-controlled subject nations that will produce their own military and navy but will provide trade power and other benefits to the colonizer, and creating [[trade companies]], which are semi-autonomous provinces that provide substantial trade bonuses in [[trade node]]s that the colonizer can control. The type of subject nation created depends on its location in the world.
''Native Coexistence Policy'' grants a {{green|−100%}} bonus to the chance to get a {{icon|native uprising chance}} [[native uprising]], effectively reducing aggressiveness in all colonizable provinces to 0. This policy is beneficial for when a nation's armies are busy elsewhere and can't be wasted sitting on a colony, when [[manpower]] is too precarious for constant skirmishes, when a nation is too poor to maintain a garrison, or for native and Sub-Saharan nations who may actually lose battles with natives in the early game. This policy also prevents natives from attacking exploring armies led by conquistadors, negating the need to field more than one unit in an exploring army or spend ducats on maintenance for said army.
''Native Trading Policy'' grants a {{green|−50%}} bonus to {{icon|native uprising chance}} native uprising chance (effectively reducing [[Colonization#Aggressiveness|aggressiveness]] by half) and {{green|+50%}} to {{icon|native assimilation}} [[Colonization#Native assimilation|native assimilation]].
Native assimilation means that the goods produced in a colonized province will increase by a factor equal to <math>\text{native population} \div 20,000</math>, rounded down, once that colony becomes a full province. The native trading policy increases this bonus by {{green|+50%}}.
==={{icon|colonial range}} Colonial range ===
The range from which a nation can establish a colony from a [[core]] is called the ''colonial range''. It is measured from that nation's nearest core province, and it expands depending on the [[Technology#Diplomatic technologies|diplomatic technology]] level of the nation as well as events, advisers, missions, policies, ideas, and other bonuses. Fleet basing rights from third countries do not extend this range. This range also controls how far [[Explorersexplorers]] can go on exploration missions. If a nation has no ports, they can only colonize adjacent land provinces, regardless of colonial range.
To check the range to a given province, change the map mode to "Colonial Range", and hover over the province of interest. The map will show green for in range and red for out of range.
==={{icon|colonist time}} Travel time ===
The speed at which a nation's colonists travel to claim and establish colonial territory is related to the [[Envoy#Envoy travel time|travel time]] of [[Merchantsmerchants]] and [[Diplomatsdiplomats]]. It is based primarily on distance from the capital but, unless the target province is directly land connected to the capital, colonists travel by sea. The actual route taken is the shortest sea distance from either the capital's port (or, if it is inland, a port that is directly connected to it) to either the target province's future port location or the port that is closest to the target province.
'''Example''': {{flag|Portugal}}'s capital is Lisboa. In order to colonize Pipil (839), a province next to the Mayan nation of {{flag|Kiche}} on the west coast of Central America, a colonist would first travel all the way south to Cape Horn in South America, then back north to reach Central America again. However, if Portugal colonized Chortli (2637) first, which is the province north of Pipil but on the east coast of Central America, then a Colonist subsequently travelling to Pipil would have its travel time dramatically reduced.
Once a colonist arrives in an unowned province the population starts at '''10'''. Colony populations grow at a base rate depending on the nation's {{icon|global settler increase}} global settler increase value, which is largely dependent on {{icon|dip tech}} [[diplomatic technology]] level but also by some ideas and other modifiers.
In addition, as long as a colonist remains in a colony, they have a chance each month (modified by {{icon|colonist chance}} colonist chance) of bringing in '''25''' additional population, speeding growth greatly. Once a colony reaches a population of '''400''', it will be randomly assigned a [[Trade goods|trade good]] based on a weighted list of goods available in that geographical region. This list can be seen via hovering over the large {{icon|unknown}} question mark icon in the uncolonized province screen. A colony becomes a full city when its population reaches '''1000''', and is destroyed if its population reaches '''0'''; this can happen due to attacks by natives, events and colonies being destroyed by other countries in a war. Resending a colonist is required to restart these colonies.
Colonists can be sent and recalled to other colonies in progress as many times as is warranted. Colonists can even be sent to colonies of enemy nations that have been seized by using the [[File:Seize colony.png|28px]] [[Colonization#Occupation|“Seize Colony”]] army option (which costs {{icon|mil}} {{green|25}} military power). A captured colony retains the [[culture]] and [[religion]] of its original owner but is instantly converted to those of its new owner once a colonist arrives.
==== Climate ====
The location and climate of a potential colony will affect the rate of growth of the colony. Colonies in Aridarid, Tropical tropical or Arctic arctic locations will receive a {{icon|global settler increase}} {{red|−10}} global settler increase penalty, and a colony with no adjacent colonies of that nation will receive a further {{icon|global settler increase}} {{red|−5}} penalty.
If controlling an area ahead of other colonizers is a concern, a nation can prefer to colonize locations with favorable terrain, but other major factors such as the number of hostile natives and the presence of a [[Center of Trade]] need to be considered as well.
==== Treaty of Tordesillas ====
With [[El Dorado|El Dorado DLC]], the first [[Catholic]] nation to form a [[colonial nation|Colonial Nation]] (that is, to core 5 provinces in a [[colonial region]], assuming its own capital is not within a colonial region) while [[the Papal State]]'s opinion of them is positive will be assigned that [[Colonial nation#List of colonial regions|region]]. That nation and their associated [[colonial nation]] will receive a {{icon|global settler increase}} {{green|+10}} increase to settler growth within the region. A single nation can have any number of [[colonial regions]] assigned to them by the Pope.
If another Catholic nation (even one with its capital in a colonial region) starts colonizing a province in that region, they will receive a severe penalty for having '''"Violated the Treaty of Tordesillas"'''. This include a {{icon|global settler increase}} {{red|−20}} Local Settler Increase penalty when colonizing that colonial region, as well as a {{icon|papal influence}} {{red|−10}} yearly papal influence penalty and a {{icon|relation}} {{red|−50}} modifier to the Papal State's opinion of that nation. Also, nation that has the claim receive {{icon|relation}} {{red|-200}} modifier to the opinion of them, with yearly decay of {{green|+1}}. Colonies that are in progress when the Pope assigns a colonial region to another nation do not count as having violated the Treaty of Tordesillas, only colonies started after a colonial region has been assigned.
==== Native policies ====
With [[The Cossacks]] expansion, a nation must select a Native Policy native policy that represents how that nation will interact with native peoples around the world. This only refers to the uncivilized indigenous native populations in uncolonized provinces, not to any Native American, African or Indonesian ''nations''.
If a nation selects ''Repression'', they will receive a bonus {{icon|global settler increase}} {{green|+20}} global settler increase, at the cost of more uprisings by the natives. The other two policies do not affect settler increase.
== Natives ==
Colonizable provinces are usually occupied by natives, who may attack a colony there, depending on several factors. Natives are also very likely to attack land units passing through their province, regardless of whether the province is colonized. However, these attacks depend on Aggressiveness, so taking the “Coexistence” Native Policy disables these random attacks and taking the “Trading” Native Policy reduces the chance of an attack occurring by half. This can be very important for North or South American natives who may have to cross uncolonized territory to attack a war target, especially since North or South American Native nations begin at [[Military military technology|Military Technology]] 1 and so can actually lose battles, or at least significant amounts of manpower, in battles with the local native population in a province.
=== Population ===
== Occupation ==
During a war, a colony can be occupied like any province. The development of a colony through normal growth will continue unabated, but a Colonist present in the province will be sent back to the colony's owner. An army standing in an occupied colony will have the option to '''Seize Colony''' for 25 {{icon|mmp}} [[Military points|military points]]. The colony ownership will transfer to the nation that used the action. The colony will keep the culture and religion of the previous owner until a colonist from the new owner reaches the colony. The colony will cost its new owner money the same as if it had been colonized by them, including the increasing costs of holding more colonies than the number of colonists.
An alternative option is the Military Action '''Burn Colony''' for 5 {{icon|mmp}} [[Military points|military points]]. The colony is completely destroyed and the province becomes, once again, an uncolonized province.
Since a colony keeps growing under occupation, it is possible that it will become a full colonial province while being occupied. Unless the 'Seize Colony' option was used earlier, the 'finished' province will belong to the original owner. This can be used to steal growing colonies to save war score for another actions in peace treaty or by non-colonizer nations to gain colonial foothold.
{{main|Trade company}}
[[Colonial nation|Colonial Nations]] s and [[Trade Companiestrade companies]] are specialized Subject Nations [[subject nation]]s that can be formed via Colonization colonization (or conquest of the appropriate regions). Understanding both types of colonial subject nations is key to benefitting from the Colonization colonization process.
Using [[Colonial nation|Colonial Nations]] colonial nations or [[Trade Companies]] trade companies to produce and control [[trade value|Trade Value]] in nodes, as well as utilizing them to gain free [[Merchantsmerchants]] or military control of overseas territories, are some of the benefits these subjects can provide a parent nation.
== Seven Cities of Gold and the Fountain of Youth ==
Halfop, Moderator, Bureaucrats, hoi4beta, hoi4de

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