Ottomans

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Kingdom rankOttomans
Ottomans.png
Primary culture
Turkish (Levantine)

Capital province
Edirne (149)

Government
Ottoman GovernmentGovernment monarchy.png

State religion
SunniSunni.png

Technology group
AnatolianAnatolian technology group
Ottoman ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
+5% Discipline
+3 Tolerance of heathens

Core-creation cost.png Kanunnames

−20% Core-creation cost
+1 Max promoted culture

Manpower recovery speed.png Ghazi

+20% Manpower recovery speed

Cavalry combat ability.png Timar System

+15% Cavalry combat ability

Cost of reducing war exhaustion.png Autonomous Pashas

−10% Cost of reducing war exhaustion

National tax modifier.png The Law code of Suleiman

+10% National tax modifier

Trade efficiency.png Tulip Period

+10% Trade efficiency

Ship costs.png Found the Imperial School of Naval Engineering

−10% Ship cost

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

+33% Land force limit modifier
Shield Ottomans.png
The Ottomans in 1444 are a regional power, in the process of securing control over Anatolia and the Balkans. In the east, Ottoman control has been reimposed in the aftermath of the Flag of Timurids Timurid invasion, but several beyliks remain independent. These Beys jockey for a position between the expanding power of the Ottomans on one side, and the Flag of Mamluks Mamluk Empire of Egypt and Syria, still the strongest state in the Middle East, on the other.

In Europe, the Ottomans have defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Varna, killing Wladyslaw, the Flag of Poland Polish and Flag of Hungary Hungarian king. Flag of Byzantium Byzantium now lies exposed and Hungary has been forced on the defensive, but with the fortress of Belgrade, still serves as a strong bulwark against further Ottoman expansion. The lesser princes in between can survive only by playing the great powers off one another. Further south, Skanderbeg leads Flag of Albania Albania in revolt against the Ottomans, supported by Flag of Venice Venice, which still dominates the seas.

The realm ruled by the Ottoman dynasty is not yet a centralized state in 1444. The sultan's authority is enforced only by his small household of servants, recruited from slaves captured in war and from the 'devshirme', the periodic conscription of Christian youths from the Balkan countryside. These are the famous Janissaries, who will in time grow into a powerful standing army. The Ottomans have come to power with the military backing of numerous marcher-lords, still highly autonomous on the Balkan frontier, while the administration lies in the hands of the Turkish aristocracy, literate in the ways of statecraft, but largely independent of the sultan's authority.

All this is about to change. Having defeated the Crusader armies, the old sultan Murad II is now on his way back to his estates in Manisa, leaving the government in the hands of the young Mehmed II. It is he who will go on to transform the Ottoman state into an empire, acquiring Constantinople as an imperial capital and establishing a centralized administration to rein in the marcher-lords and old Turkish families. For 'The Grand Turk', there can be no compromise – the House of Osman is to be the supreme authority in the land. The only question is this: where will his armies turn to first??

Europa Universalis IV starts on November 11th 1444, the day after the Ottomans' victory over the Christian alliance at Varna. They begin owning most of Anatolia and the southern Balkans. For new players, the early game will likely be focused on consolidating the country's position in those regions. Internally, the country is divided between the Orthodoxy Orthodox and Sunni Islam Sunni faiths. Economically, they hold the majority of the Constantinople node trade power with very easy access to the rest.

In the Balkans, the important trade center of Constantinople and the region of Morea are held by the declining nation of Flag of Byzantium Byzantium and its vassal, Flag of Athens Athens. The Aegean Sea is controlled mainly by Flag of Venice Venice and Flag of Genoa Genoa hindering control of the Constantinople trade node. The Anatolian region is a home to several Turkish Beyliks. Further east, in the Taurus and Caucasus mountains, the hordes of Flag of Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu and Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu control some outlying Ottoman territory, and shield the Ottomans from their historical rival, the Flag of Timurids Timurids. To the south, historical and trade rival the Flag of Mamluks Mamluks control a sprawling trade empire that extends into Africa, while their vassal Flag of Hejaz Hejaz controls the holy cities of Medina and Mecca. To the west, the Balkan nations are ripe for the taking - Flag of Moldavia Moldavia is the only safe nation due to it being a march of Flag of Poland Poland which blocks expansion. Further expansion into the west is halted by Flag of Austria Austria and Flag of Hungary Hungary, while across the Adriatic, Italy is mostly protected by the Imperial authority.png Holy Roman Emperor and Flag of Aragon Aragon.

The Ottomans have a unique government type named the Ottoman Government. This government is in many ways synonymous with the royal household, but with a harem feature that ensures that there will never be a lack of heirs for the Ottoman ruler. The Ottomans follow the Hanafi school Hanafi school of Islam.

Contents

Ottoman Government[edit]

The Ottoman Government is a unique government type with fixed dynasty and the following benefits:

  •   +0.5 Yearly legitimacy
  •   −10% Unjustified demands
  •   +3 Number of states
  •   +5 Maximum absolutism

This government is permanently lost if the country is no longer muslim or if the government type is changed during the Revolution disaster or by revolutionary rebels enforcing their demands.

Harem[edit]

The harem helps ensure that there will never be a lack of heirs for the empire. An event triggers if the current ruler has reached 30 years of age and has no heir which allows the player choose an heir for the throne from a random list of three choices, being able to view their monarch stats prior to the choice.

See also: Ottoman events#Harem
id

 The Sons of [Root.Monarch.GetName]


"His Imperial Majesty [Root.Monarch.GetName] [Root.Monarch.GetTitle], sovereign of the house of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the lord of the Universe, Custodian of the Two Noble Sanctuaries, Qayser-i Rum, Emperor of the Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianople and Bursa has a reputation as a great man and is unchallenged as a ruler.

As befits a man of his caliber and stature the Sultan has fathered several capable children and many who show great promise as future rulers. Both the sons themselves and our government officials are acutely aware that only one can inherit and what awaits the others. Our Viziers are adamant that it is now high time for [Root.Monarch.GetName] to name a favorite among the possible successors. This is unlikely to end the competition for [Root.Monarch.GetHerHis] favor but it will hopefully stop the worst succession struggles that might follow if our [Root.Monarch.GetTitle] should meet his maker without having picked a clear successor."


 
Trigger conditions
  •   Rights of Man DLC is enabled.
  • Government is Ottoman Government.
  • Ruler age is at least 30.
  • There is no available heir.
Mean time to happen

6 months


Immediate effects
  • One of the following will happen:
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_fairest_heir being set.
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_strong_heir being set.
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_leadership_heir being set.
    • 1% chance of the country flag harem_genious_heir being set.
  • One of the following will happen:
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_studious_heir being set.
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_pious_heir being set.
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_inquisitive_heir being set.
  • One of the following will happen:
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_gregarious_heir being set.
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_entrepreneurial_heir being set.
    • 33% chance of the country flag harem_generous_heir being set.

Option conditions

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_pious_heir
 
The Pious son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • an   administrative skill of at least 1.
    • a   diplomatic skill of at most 5.
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_strong_heir
 
The Strongest son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • a   military skill of at least 1.
    • a   diplomatic skill of at most 5.
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_studious_heir
 
The Studious son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • an   administrative skill of at least 1.
    • a   military skill of at most 5.
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_leadership_heir
 
The Natural Leader is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • a   military skill of at least 1.
    • an   administrative skill of at most 5.
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_gregarious_heir
 
The Gregarious son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • a   diplomatic skill of at least 1.
    • a   military skill of at most 5.
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_fairest_heir
 
The Fairest son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_entrepreneurial_heir
 
The Entrepreneurial son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • a   diplomatic skill of at least 1.
    • an   administrative skill of at most 5.
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_inquisitive_heir
 
The Inquisitive son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_genious_heir
 
The Most Gifted son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • an   administrative skill of at least 1.
    • a   diplomatic skill of at least 1.
    • a   military skill of at least 1.
    • an age of 10.

 Enabled if:

  • Has the country flag harem_generous_heir
 
The Generous son is our favorite.
  • A male heir of this dynasty is born with:
    • an age of 10.


Pashas[edit]

This government may assign a pasha to one of its states from the state interface, and the following modifiers will be applied to each province in this state:

  −50% State maintenance
  −2 Local unrest
  +20% Local construction cost
  +20% Local regiment cost

Removing the Pasha causes all the provinces in the state to suffer a   +5 local unrest penalty for 10 years.

Janissaries[edit]

Janissaries are a special unit category available only to countries with the Ottoman government, and are displayed with a red background in the army view. They are elite infantry troops with   −10% fire damage received,   −10% shock damage received, and +100% army drill gain modifier. However, unlike other special units, janissaries are   +100% costlier to reinforce.

Janissaries can be recruited from the state interface of states comprising heathen provinces: each 10 heathen   development in the state gives 1 janissary regiment. This costs   10 military power per regiment raised. Over-reliance on janissaries may trigger the Janissary Coup disaster after the end of the   'Age of Discovery'.

Missions[edit]

Main article: Ottoman missions

Practically all of the Ottomans missions revolve around expanding their borders. In the early stages of the game, many of the missions revolve around reclaiming the lands of Anatolia, as well as the iconic mission to conquer the City of the World's Desire: Constantinople or Conquer the Crusader's Last Bastion (Rhodes). Further missions will request the Ottoman Empire to expand and conquer the regions of Balkans, North Africa, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, as well as individual provinces - all to increase trading power in the spice trade and to unite   lands against Christendom.

Events[edit]

Main article: Ottoman events

Many historical events are the aftermath from the expansion and government reforms of the Ottoman Empire - such events can revolve around the relationship between the Ottoman Empire and the trade states of   Venice and   Genoa, the left-over Greek  Orthodox Patriarchate, enacting reforms that might not be popular with everyone, or suppressing nationalistic rebels.

Decisions[edit]

 Adopt the Provincial Government System


Appointing provincial governors, or 'Beys' can certainly improve administration of taxes and such but with less direct control over our provinces there is also the possibility of ambitious governors spending most of their time caught up in intrigues and internal feuds.


 
Potential requirements
  • Ottomans have not enacted this decision before
Allow
  •   Administrative technology is at least 5
  • Ruler's   administrative skill is at least 4
  • Has at least   50 administrative power

Effects
  • Lose −50 administrative power
  • Ottomans gain the modifier Provincial Government System for the rest of the campaign:
    •  +1 National unrest
    •  +10% National tax modifier

 Expand the Devshirme System


By enrolling young men from newly conquered lands into service we have increased the efficiency of our recruitment process considerably. Let us further expand and refine this system as our state grows.


 
Potential requirements
  • Has the Ottoman government
  • Has not enacted this decision before[1]
  • Is not in the Janissary Coup disaster
Allow
  • Has at least 100 military power

Effects
  • Lose   −100 military power
  • Gain the modifier Devshirme System until the event ‘The Lapse of the Devshirme’:
    •  +10% National manpower modifier
  • If   Cradle of Civilization is not enabled:

 Disband the Janissaries


In 1622, the 17-year-old Sultan Osman II, decided to curb the Janissary excesses. The year before he had been defeated by the Poles during the 'Moldavian Magnate Wars', which he mainly blamed the cowardice of the Janissaries for. He was also outraged over being 'subject to his own slaves.' Rumors about the Sultan preparing to disband them soon reached the Janissaries who revolted and imprisoned Osman. Shortly after he was strangled to death.


 
Potential requirements Allow

Effects

 Make Constantinople Capital


The glorious city we have recently conquered will make a splendid capital for our nation. Constantinople is the greatest city on earth, and our government would make it so much stronger.


 
Potential requirements
  • Is the Ottomans or Rûm
  • Own Constantinople (151)
  • Capital is not Constantinople
  • Have not enacted this decision before
Allow
  • Is not at war
  • Primary culture is Turkish
  • Is Muslim
  • Controls the province Constantinople
  • Owns Edirne (149), Kocaeli (316), Hüdavendigar (317) and Burgas / Kirkkilise (1764)

Effects
  • Gain   +1 stability
  • Constantinople:
    • Becomes core
    • Becomes capital
    • Changes culture to Turkish
    • Changes religion to Sunni
    • Changes province capital name to Kostantiniyye
  • If the global flag constantinople_restored is not set:
    • Constantinople:
      • Gains  +4 base tax
      • Gains  +4 base production
      • Gains  +3 base manpower
    • Sets the global flag constantinople_restored
  • Government rank becomes Empire

Strategy[edit]

The early targets should be   Albania (before   Venice takes its core here),   Byzantium (taking Constantinople) and small Turkish beyliks in Anatolia (before   Mamluks or   Qara Qoyunlu conquer them). The Ottomans are strong so it's possible to do several wars at the same time.

  Aq Qoyunlu owns one   Syria province which can be released, easily diplomatically vassalized and later fed Syrian cores from Mamluks (with significantly reduced aggressive expansion). Qara Qoyunlu owns one Ottoman and one Syrian core and should be taken as soon as possible (best if QQ is in some exhaustive war e.g. with   Timurids or Mamluks).

Other early war targets are   Trebizond, or   Georgia before Qara Qoyunlu will vassalize it (Ottomans has mission for it) and   Theodoro before   Crimea or   Genoa takes it.

After getting these possessions, the major Asian neighboring powers should be already crippled and do not represent a threat. Ottomans can then conquer   Serbia,   Bosnia,   The Knights, finish Southern Greece and vassalize   Wallachia (missions for all of them). There is a seductive mission for conquering Caffa but it is advised to pick it only after the Shadow kingdom event happens, otherwise the Emperor will protect Genoa.

A single successful war with   Hungary ending by releasing   Croatia,   Transylvania or   Nitra may cripple this neighboring power and be a stepping stone to conquer HRE lands. However a strong European ally would be probably required for this war. France or Bohemia can often decide to ally Ottoman and help in the wars against the common enemy Austria.

Another exhaustive war would be with Venice to take it and its vassals' Balkan possessions - these are essential otherwise Venice will steal the trade income from Constantinople and Alexandria. The player should be careful and have a bigger navy than Venice and its allies together.

  Convert to Orthodox[edit]

Ottomans can convert to Orthodox in several ways:

  • The quickest way occurs prior to annexing any territory by sending a missionary to an   Orthodox province triggers enough unrest to create a possible rebellion. Ottomans are sufficiently Orthodox to be able to convert by accepting the rebels demands. However, if this is done the Ottomans lose out on the decision to make Constantinople the capital missing 11 development points. The upside is that Constantinople will not need to be converted.
  • A second way to convert and securing the extra 11 development from the make Constantinople the capital decision is by conquering   Byzantium and at least two of the four nations of   Athens and   Albania,   Theodoro, or   Trebizond. After Constantinople is secured and the decision clicked sending a missionary to any   Orthodox province with unrest below 0 will create a rebellion that will allow accepting demands to convert to Orthodox. Religious rebels generated in the province of Trebizond have the advantage of being able to force convert Anatolia while completing sieges on provinces. A rebel generated in Edirne or Kirkkilise are the closest to Constantinople and can force convert that province - which otherwise can not be converted until a combination of   patriarch authority, an inquisitor and Religious ideas are taken.
  • Both methods should be done prior to the annexation of the Anatolian Beyliks as the extra provinces will reduce the percentage of Orthodox.

Note, there are two handicaps to this as reduced  religious unity incurs a   corruption penalty and initially Orthodox are unable to convert  Sunni provinces.

If the Dhimmi estate has low loyalty, revoking the heathen provinces granted to them will spawn zealots of the province's religion. As soon as the game starts,the Impose New Religious Tax interaction from the Estate tab can be taken, reducing Dhimmi loyalty to 35. Many Orthodox provinces start out as belonging to the Dhimmi estate, and can be revoked after a year has passed. The Zealots spawned will convert every non-Orthodox province they occupy to  Orthodox if the occupied province is not within a fort's Zone of Control, including Konstantiniyye after Make Constantinople the Capital decision has been taken, if the fort in Edirne is destroyed.. Zealots will not be able to cross the strait to Anatolia as there are almost always AI ships in the Sea of Marmara. They instead will march all the way around the Black Sea until they are defeated in battle by a nation along the way, or arrive back into Ottoman lands. The player can annex   Trebizond and send a missionary to the province (as outlined above) after granting it to the Dhimmi Estate, then revoke the estate ownership after a year if they wish to force convert  Sunni Anatolia prior to switching to Orthodox.

  Convert to Coptic[edit]

Conversion to Coptic is done fastest by taking the 3 Coptic provinces Van, Yerevan and Nakhchivan from   Qara Qoyunlu. Converting to Coptic removes the unique government type from Ottomans.

Give those provinces to the Dhimmi estate, and spawn 3 Coptic rebel stacks by revoking those provices a year later, after making the Dhimmi disloyal by asking for gold.

However, all Coptic holy sites are easily conquered, so the Ottomans will get the benefit of the five Coptic blessings very early on.

  Convert to Catholic[edit]

Conversion to Catholic is also possible as the Ottomans. This can be done in an many ways however, the easier ways include securing either a   Catholic province from   Bosnia,   Ragusa, Sayuda from the   Mamluks or waiting for   Athens to convert its province and then securing it. However, as the amount of Catholic is small relative to the empire it will take a several years of waiting as a rebel stack forcibly converts provinces. However, this can be shortened by utilizing Dhimmi revolts. Note, there are two handicaps to this as reduced  religious unity incurs a   corruption penalty and initially Catholics are unable to efficiently convert  Sunni provinces.

  Form Holy roman Empire[edit]

After being   Catholic the Ottomans can be elected and take a lot of   imperial authority by adding european provinces to the HRE then pass the reforms.

Technology[edit]

The Ottomans begin the game in 1444 in the   Anatolian military technology group at level 3 for Administration, Diplomacy and Military with Feudalism embraced.

Overview:

  •  60% Ratio. As a Sunni nation, Cavalry numbers may be up to 60% of a total army size, excluding   artillery, before the Insufficient Support penalty is incurred. Note that this will be reduced to the standard 50% Calvary ratio upon conversion to another religion.
  •   Anatolian units: see Anatolian land units. Early game   Anatolian units (up to military tech 15) are superior to Western by 1 pip. Notably, Janissaries (infantry at military tech 9) have 1 offensive fire pip; the only other tech groups to get fire pips this early are  Indian and  Chinese (who have a much harder time embracing institutions). Conversely, Anatolian cavalry has no fire pips until tech 18, compared to 10 for Western.

The Janissaries[edit]

The Ottomans may have the event The Janissaries fire if their ruler is above 5 monarch power in any category and they have 50   army tradition. If accepted, the Janissaries give considerable military bonuses to the Ottomans for the remainder of the game. In addition to the extra power their Anatolian units have, the bonuses from the Janissaries catapult the military strength of the Ottomans far above that of their neighbors. However, accepting this event will additionally unlock the unique Janissary Decadence disaster for the Ottomans in 100 years. While the disaster can take an enormous toll on the Ottomans if left unattended, it is easily ended by taking the decision Disband the Janissaries, which removes the military bonuses. In addition, the disaster can be avoided entirely if the Ottomans ruler has above 5 skill in any category; a condition made much easier by having the Ottoman Government. As a player, building up the Janissaries as soon as possible is advised due to the considerable power it gives early in the game, and because the disaster is easily avoided by choosing an heir that disables the disaster. As a player playing against an AI Ottomans, it is often advised to wait to fight them until they disband the Janissaries and lose the military bonuses.

Avoiding the Janissary Decadance disaster is made even easier with the ability to disinherit heirs without a skill above 5.

Goals After Early Moves[edit]

The Muslim Ottomans future goals revolve around the ability to Unify Islam which involves conquering holy sites (provinces) and being 100% Muslim.

Post Decision Goals[edit]

If the Ottomans have completed the 3 listed decisions they are likely the physically largest and most developed nation on 3 continents. At this stage the question becomes how big can the Ottomans grow. Rivals may include   Commonwealth,   Russia,   Great Britain,   France,   Ming and   Spain.

Suggested Early Ideas[edit]

The needs of the Ottomans are fairly diverse and can be approached in a number of ways. Given that the Ottomans can release and do re-conquest for Syria/Persia/Iraq and also can diplo-vassalize Fezzan and feed it high coring cost north African land, taking   Influence ideas that have both reduced   diplomatic annexation cost and reduced   aggressive expansion impact which can prevent   coalition formation. Later   Diplomatic ideas can be taken to more effectively reduce aggressive expansion by giving  −20% province warscore cost and   Improve Relations so any AE quickly cools down.

  Administrative ideas are recommended as the  −25% core reduction cost can stack with the  −20% from Kanunnames. The lowered cost and maintenance of mercenaries will help the Ottomans to field a large force of mercenaries.

If the Ottomans choose to go   Orthodox,   Coptic, or   Catholic,   Religious ideas may be a good choice as Deus Vult yields the Holy War casus belli making the acquisition of territories east or south of the Ottomans free from the use of diplomatic power. This is especially strong with the   Coptic faith as it will yield even more coring cost reduction, and a casus belli with nearly all neighbors (among other bonuses).   Administrative ideas may be required to manage the administrative power cost of coring all that land. The bonus   +1 missionary,   +3% missionary strength and  +2% missionary strength vs heretics will be of great help in maintaining Ottomans'   religious unity.

If Ottomans stay Sunni,   Humanist idea group is usually the best option for handling rebels and fits well with an aggressive conquest style where Ottoman don't have time to convert all heathen provinces. It also gives provinces for the Dhimmi estate, which can be quite lucrative.

As for military ideas, with Ottomans' tendency to often be at war and having high military tradition, military ideas like Offensive shine with good generals and siege ability. However with Anatolian troops being so strong early game even a idea group like Aristocratic can be helpful to put military points into other areas. Extra manpower, extra diplomat to annex vassals, Monthly autonomy change to counterbalance Lighten Dhimmi Tax Burden, keeping military traditions high and getting an extra siege pip are very good to keep the Ottomans as an unbeatable military force. If low manpower is a problem, mercenaries and Quantity ideas can go a long way.

Achievements[edit]

 
Own and have cores on Rome, Moscow and Constantinople as Ottomans.
 
Assign Pasha to Paris.
Country guides

Central African technology group     Mutapa
East African technology group     Kilwa
Muslim technology group     Mamluks  Tunis
West African technology group     Mali

Eastern technology group     Jerusalem
Muslim technology group     Arabia   Hisn Kayfa   Oman
Indian technology group     Assam   Bahmanis   Bengal   Orissa
Chinese technology group     Bali   Brunei   Dai Viet   Japan   Khmer   Korea   Majapahit   Malaya   Pagarruyung   Pasai   Sunda
Nomadic technology group     Jianzhou   Timurids   Uzbek

Western technology group     United States
Mesoamerican technology group     Maya
North American technology group     Caddo   Cherokee   Iroquois

Andean technology group     Cusco   Muisca
South American technology group     Mapuche

  1. Does not have the country modifier Devshirme system or the country flag lapse_of_devshirme
  2. Custom tooltip for Yoklama: See the end of the Janissary Coup disaster