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Duchy rankMongolia
Primary culture
Mongol (Altaic)

Capital province
Ih Huree (2116)

Steppe Nomads Government steppe horde.png

State religion

Technology group
NomadicNomadic technology group
Mongolian ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
+25% National manpower modifier
−5 Years of separatism

Cavalry combat ability.png Ghostly Horses of the Plain

+20% Cavalry combat ability

Aggressive expansion impact.png Ikh Mongol Uls

−15% Aggressive expansion impact

Land attrition.png The Life of a Steppe Warrior

−20% Land attrition

Core-creation cost.png The Northern Yuan

−25% Core-creation cost

Envoy travel time.png Yams of the Great Khan

−25% Envoy travel time
−15% Reinforce cost

Land leader maneuver.png Mongolian Mobility

+1 Land leader maneuver
+10% Movement speed

Land leader shock.png The Kheshig

+1 Land leader shock

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

−5% Land maintenance modifier
Shield Mongolia.png
The Flag of Mongol Empire Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khaan) is gone, its successor states reduced to infighting on the fringes of civilization. The once mighty Flag of Yuan Yuan dynasty, the domain of Kublai Khan, has been entirely driven out of China and retreated back to the steppe in shame. Though Mongolia still claims the Yuan Emperorship, theMandate.pngMandate of Heaven has shifted to the Flag of Ming Ming, who seized power in the midst of a mass uprising against Mongol rule.

Today the Mongol Khan cannot even claim to rule the steppe, or even to rule independently. Most of Mongolia has fallen under the sway of a new Mongol power: the Flag of Oirat Oirat Confederation led by Esen Taishi. Esen has great ambitions; refusing to pay tribute to the Ming, he is willing to fight their vast armies in a bid for dominance. If Esen were not such a brilliant military commander the Western Mongols would be unlikely to accept such brash posturing.

Khan Unebolad of the Flag of Korchin Korchin Mongols has carved out a respectable domain in Eastern Mongolia. He too has grand ambitions to reunite the Mongols, though his armies and abilities are more of a match for the divided Jurchens to the east than the consolidated forces of the Oirats.

The Flag of Chagatai Chagatai Khanate is the most stable of the Mongol successor states, though this does not hold it to a high standard. The Chagatayids retain control over the land north of the Tian Shan mountains, as well as over the Flag of Yarkand Yarkand Emirate of the Tarim Basin.

Many among the Mongols have adopted the Vajrayana.png Vajrayana faith, the Tibetan sect of Buddhism. For the last several centuries this faith has coexisted peacefully with traditional Mongol belief inTengriTengri, and the faith was even favored for a time under the Yuan. The Mongols must consider carefully their relations with Flag of Tibet Tibet and decide on how to deal with the matter of religion.

Every Khan dreams of bringing unity to the Mongols and restoring Genghis Khan’s (Chinggis Khaan's) great Mongol Empire. Thus far all who have tried have had only short-lived success. But there is still time for a new Khan to rise to the challenge...?

Mongolia is a Steppe Horde in the Tartary region of East Asia, who are ruled by the Borjigins, the direct descendants of Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khaan). They follow the Tengri faith, with Vajrayana syncretised.

Mongolia starts under the vassalage of the Flag of Oirat Oirat Khanate which lays in the west. To the east, they are bordered by Flag of Solon Solon and Flag of Korchin Korchin, and in the south by Flag of Ming Ming, the latter two both holding several core provinces of Mongolia.


Main article: Mongol missions


Those are events added by the free Women in History DLC and concern Flag of Mongolia Mongolia specifically:[1]


Msg event.pngMandukhai Khatun

The spy and agent of Ming China Eslem killed Mandukhai Khatun's first husband Manduul Khan and the throne was left without an heir. She had the support and loyalty of General Unubold despite rejecting his marriage offer when she adopted Batmunkh, a seven-year-old orphan and direct descendant of Genghis Khan. He was proclaimed Dayan Khan and Mandukhai, with command over the Monghols, defeated the Oirats. The Western Mongols was punished for their constant civil wars by forcing them to follow five codes: Crests of helmets must not exceed two fingers long - Eat meat without a knife - Do not call your Ger an Ordon (Palace) - Do not refer to airag as tsegee - Sit upon your knees before khans.

This event happens only once during a campaign.
Trigger conditions
  • Is Flag of Mongolia Mongolia.
  • Does not have a female ruler.
  • Is in a regency.
  • Government type is a Government monarchy.png monarchy.
  • Is not the lesser partner in Personal union.png a personal union.

The year is before 1510.

Mean time to happen

200 months

Event button 547.png
We need her as a general!
  • Gain 100 Administrative power.png administrative power.
  • Gain 100 Diplomatic power.png diplomatic power.
  • Gain 100 Military power.png military power.
  • Gain a new female General.png general named Mandukhai Khatun with:
    • 4 Land leader fire.png fire,
    • 4 Land leader shock.png shock,
    • 5 Land leader maneuver.png maneuver,
    • 1 Leader siege.png siege.
Event button 547.png
Rule us, please!

Get a new female ruler Mandukhai Khatun of Borjigin dynasty with:

  • 4 Administrative power.png administrative skill,
  • 5 Diplomatic power.png diplomatic skill,
  • 6 Military power.png military skill.
  • has Mongol culture.
  • has Spy network construction.png ‘Intricate webweaver’ personality.

If the country uses ‘Statists vs Monarchists’ mechanics:

  • then strengthen Monarchists in power by 100%.
Event button 547.png
Advise us!
  • Gain 100 Administrative power.png administrative power.
  • Gain 100 Diplomatic power.png diplomatic power.
  • Gain 100 Military power.png military power.
  • If this country is the Emperor of China,
  • then it gains Meritocracy.png5 meritocracy.
  • Gain access to a female discounted Advisor Commandant female.PNG commandant with skill 2 named Mandukhai Khatun.



Execute decision.pngReform Great Yuan

The heirs of Kublai Khan once ruled over all Chinese and Mongol lands. Let us rise to reclaim the legacy of the old Yuan and crush the weaker lineages that have attempted to claim the Empire that is our birthright!

Potential requirements

Flag of Yuan Yuan does not exist.
The country:

If the country is AI-controlled, then:

  • it can not be a custom nation.
  • it can not be a former colonial nation.
  • it must own at least 8 cities.

The country:

  • is not at war.
  • is not a subject nation other than a tributary state.
  • has a stability of at least 2.
  • owns its core provinces Xilin Gol (723), Beijing (1816), Qaraqorum (2190), and Xuanhua (2136).
  • owns or has a non-tributary subject own all provinces of Mongol, Korchin, Khalkha, and Oirat culture.

If Mandate of Heaven.png Mandate of Heaven DLC is active and there is an Emperor of China:

else if Common Sense.png Common Sense DLC is active:

  • the country must be an Empire rank empire.


  • the country must have 1000 development


If Beijing (1816):


  • Beijing (1816) leaves the HRE.
  • the emperor of the HRE:
    • loses Imperial authority.png1 imperial authority.
    • gets the opinion modifier “Removed provinces from the Empire” towards the country, worth Opinion.png−50 opinion with a yearly decay of 1.

Beijing (1816):

  • becomes the capital of the country.
  • gains Base tax.png1 base tax, Production.png1 production, and Manpower.png1 manpower.
  • is renamed to Khanbaliq.
  • has its capital renamed to Khanbaliq.

The country:

If Flag of Yuan Yuan:

Xilin Gol (723):

  • is renamed to Xanadu.
  • has its capital renamed to Xanadu.

Xuanhua (2136):

  • is renamed to Zhongdu.
  • has its capital renamed to Zhongdu.

Execute decision.pngRe-form the Ilkhanate

The Ilkhanate, successors to the Mongol Empire in Persia, once ruled over a great empire. It is time to restore this legacy and rule Persia as a new dynasty of Ilkhans.

Potential requirements

The country:

If the country is AI-controlled, then it can not be a custom nation.


Flag of Ilkhanate Ilkhanate does not exist.
The country:


The country:

  • becomes Flag of Ilkhanate Ilkhanate.
  • gains Yearly prestige.png25 prestige.
  • gets the modifier “Increased Centralization” for 20 years with the following effects:
    • Autonomy.png−0.05 monthly autonomy change,
    • National unrest.png+1 national unrest.

If Flag of Ilkhanate Ilkhanate does not have custom ideas:

Own core (red), own or non-tributary subject own (blue), permanent claims after formation (yellow)


Strategy The below is one of many player suggested strategies for Mongolia. Bear in mind, due to the dynamic nature of the game, it may unfold differently for other players.

Independence War

Mongolia starts as a vassal of Flag of Oirat Oirat. The player should consider declaring an independence war with the help of an Flag of Oirat Oirat rival, which usually includes Flag of Uzbek Uzbek and Flag of Chagatai Chagatai, and save up administrative points for increasing stability and adding cores. Beware that Flag of Ming Ming will usually declare war on Flag of Oirat Oirat within the first few years and this will drag you to war against Ming. Thus, it is advisable that the player should declare a war of independence prior to Ming attacking Oirat. If either Flag of Uzbek Uzbek or Flag of Chagatai Chagatai joined the independence war, or if Ming declared on Oirat, the war would not be difficult.

If neither Chagatai nor Uzbek are willing to support Mongolia's independence, the player can usually change their syncretic faith to Confucianism and subsequently get Ming to support their independence.

Remember to take Qaraqorum in the peace deal as this will allow the player to finish the first mission in the mission tree.

Killing the Giant

After finishing the first mission, the player should accept the tributary request from Ming as this is vital to the expansion in the area. Since Feudalism.png Feudalism has not been embraced, it is suggested to set monarch point focus to military as keeping on par in military tech is essential for expansion. Opening moves involve opportunistic expansions into the neighbouring lands of Central Asia, Manchuria or Korea, preferably as fast as possible and aim for getting 300 development. Prioritise annexing Flag of Haixi Haixi and Flag of Jianzhou Jianzhou as they are the only nations started with Feudalism.png Feudalism institution in the region. Annexing them will allow the player to embrace feudalism without developing provinces. Note that Flag of Japan Japan may invade the Korean coastline if Flag of Korea Korea and Flag of Ming Ming have been severely weakened by the player.

When Flag of Mongolia Mongolia reaches 300 total development (including subject's development), while Flag of Ming Ming passes a celestial reform (withMandate of Heaven.png Mandate of Heaven DLC), the player could cancel his tributary status with Ming and seek to enter a war against them. This is because Ming with low Mandate suffers from damage receive penalty and will be vulnerable to attack. Also, non-tributary steppe horde reaching 300 development will also trigger Disaster.pngUnguarded Nomadic Frontier in Ming as long as the country is not into a truce with Ming. Fighting with high cavalry:infantry ratio (75%-100% depending on whether a syncretic religion has been chosen for TengriTengri) on flat terrain is advisable as steppe horde in general. It is possible that Disaster.pngUnguarded Nomadic Frontier disaster or Li Zechang's Rebellion may occur after a prolonged war, which will also severely weaken Ming.

Possible expansion directions and achievements

The expansion directions after Ming's collapse are numerous and there are many achievements that are associated with Mongolia. One general tip as horde is to constantly attack neighbouring countries using the Tribal Conquest casus belli and take lands to neighbour more countries for further expansion or establishing tributaries. Looting provinces during war, asking for money and war reparation in peace deal, as well as razing conquered provinces (The Cossacks.png Cossacks DLC required) should be considered as horde economy suffers from high army maintenance due to their large cavalry army, as well as high corruption and inflation that has to be bought down due to the constant overextension. Looting and razing can also increase horde unity for better discipline and lower national unrest.

Forming Great Yuan - Seize Beijing after the first war and raze the city will complete the achievement Pyramid of Skulls. Follow the mission tree (Mandate of Heaven.png Mandate of Heaven DLC required) for claims in Chinese region. The player can form Flag of Yuan Yuan for their expansionistic ideas by either taking over the Mandate of Heaven or eliminating the Mandate of Heaven mechanics and reaching the Empire rank (if the player would like to play as Government steppe horde.pngSteppe Nomad). Mandate of Heaven mechanics can be eliminated by annexing the emperor of China without taking over Mandate of Heaven. Taking over Mandate of Heaven will allow the player to adopt the Mandate.png Celestial Empire government and will lose the Government steppe horde.pngSteppe Nomad military bonuses, notably the cavalry:infantry ratio and the Tribal Conquest casus belli, which allows taking non-claimed provinces without using diplomatic points together with reduced aggressive expansion. Since the Chinese region will be filled with many countries after Ming's collapse, try to establish tributaries with countries that you are not conquering soon as this will avoid aggressive expansion to build up on these countries. Forming Flag of Yuan Yuan and take over all of China will not only complete Back in Control achievement, but also provide an economic boost to the Steppe Horde as South China region is packed with highly developed provinces that produce luxury goods including Silk.png silk, Tea.png tea, and Chinaware.png chinaware, which will boost the production and trading income of Flag of Yuan Yuan.

Expansionist playstyle and the Great Khan- By exploiting the combined advantage of being a Steppe Nomad and Flag of Yuan Yuan national ideas, it is not difficult to beat up Flag of Russia Russia and the dominant Iranian powers to achieve The Great Khan. Also, taking 200 grains or livestock provinces, which are abundant throughout central Asia and pontic steppe region, will allow the player to get I'll graze my horse here.. And here... achievement. Conquering lands in Japanese, Indochina and Indian region is also lucrative and allow easy expansion into these regions. Beware that Flag of Japan Japan or other large nations may declare on the player when he/she is exhausted in a large war, particularly when the player is fighting Flag of Russia Russia. Make sure your institution is up to date using the monarch points obtained from razing to develop provinces as being technologically advanced is important in fighting large nations. Once sufficient number of merchants has been attained and Persian region is conquered, the player should also consider moving the trade capital to Persian trade node. Please check out The Great Khan guide for more details on expansionist playstyle.

Colonist Playstyle - The player may go for a colonist playstyle if the Chinese region is secured early enough in the game. It is easier to achieve if the player reform his government to celestial empire or monarchy for easier management on the cost of establishing colony and avoid the problem brought by low horde unity which requires constant expansion to keep it high. By conquering provinces in North America with Nahuatl.png Nahuatl religion, it is possible for Flag of Mongolia Mongolia to choose it as syncretic faith for the Blood for the Sky God achievement.

Suggested Ideas

Horde Government idea group.png Horde ideas - This idea group is very advised if playing with 75% or 100% cavalry, depending on your syncretic faith, while also provides religious unity, and AE reduction.

Humanist idea group.png Humanist - Taking this will reduce the unrest in the empire and is very useful for suppressing rebels in an expansion-oriented gameplay.

Diplomatic idea group.png Diplomatic or Influence idea group.pngInfluence - Apart from the diplomatic reputation that is useful for securing allies in the West, the diplomatic idea group also contains an idea that reduce provincial war score cost for more effective expansion. Influence idea will allow expansion via vassal annexation easier.

Economic idea group.png Economic or Trade idea group.png Trade - Steppe nomads suffer from a terrible economy. Economic allows debts with less interest per annum, reduction to development cost with a boost to taxation and production. Trade idea provides extra merchants and trade efficiency that allows pumping of money from the prosperous South China region to the home trade node to secure the mid-game income.


Back in Control icon
Form Yuan and be the only nation holding land in China.
The Great Khan icon
As the Mongol Khanate or the Great Horde, own or have a subject own the Chinese, Russian and Persian regions.
I'll graze my horse here.. And here... icon
As a Horde, own over 200 provinces producing grain.
Pyramid of Skulls icon
As a Steppe Horde, raze a province with at least 30 development.
Turning the Tide icon
Start as a Steppe Horde in 1444 and embrace all institutions.
Country guides

Eastern technology group Eastern.png Jerusalem.png Jerusalem Kharabakh.png Kharabakh
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Afghanistan.png Afghanistan Ajam.png Ajam Arabia.png Arabia Ardabil.png Ardabil Hisn Kayfa.png Hisn Kayfa Hormuz.png Hormuz Oman.png Oman Mushasha.png Mushasha Timurids.png Timurids Qara Qoyunlu.png Qara Qoyunlu
Indian technology group Indian.png Assam.png Assam Bahmanis.png Bahmanis Bengal.png Bengal Orissa.png Orissa
Chinese technology group Chinese.png Bali.png Bali Brunei.png Brunei Dai Viet.png Dai Viet Japan.png Japan Khmer.png Khmer Korea.png Korea Majapahit.png Majapahit Malaya.png Malaya Pagarruyung.png Pagarruyung Pasai.png Pasai Sunda.png Sunda
Nomadic technology group Nomadic.png Jianzhou.png Jianzhou Uzbek.png Uzbek Mongolia.png Mongolia

Central African technology group Central African.png Kuba.png KubaMutapa.png Mutapa
East African technology group East African.png Ethiopia.png EthiopiaMogadishu.png Mogadishu
Muslim technology group Muslim.png The Mamluks.png MamluksMorocco.png MoroccoTlemcen.png TlemcenTunis.png Tunis
West African technology group West African.png Air.png AirMali.png Mali

Western technology group Western.png United States.png United States
Mesoamerican technology group Mesoamerican.png Maya.png Maya
North American technology group North American.png Caddo.png Caddo Cherokee.png Cherokee Iroquois.png Iroquois

Andean technology group Andean.png Chachapoya.png Chachapoya Cusco.png Cusco Muisca.png Muisca
South American technology group South American.png Mapuche.png Mapuche

  1. The script code of the events can be found in /Europa Universalis IV/events/WomenInHistory.txt.