Emperor of China
|Available only with the Mandate of Heaven DLC enabled.|
The Emperor of China (also EoC) claims the Mandate of Heaven to rule the Middle Kingdom. In 1444, Ming starts as the reigning emperor.
Any nation belonging to either the pagan or eastern religion groups can claim the Mandate if they neighbor the current emperor by declaring war using the “Take Mandate of Heaven” casus belli. Aside from the claim to the Mandate, the CB also grants –50% Province warscore cost to all provinces in the China super-region.
Successfully taking the Mandate gives its holder permanent claims on all of the China super-region, the Celestial Empire special government, and unlocks the mandate and meritocracy mechanics. In addition, the EoC gets 2 unique CBs: “Force tributary state” and “Unify China”.
The Emperor of China will never allow colonizers to charter a trade company, giving a -100 "too powerful" modifier when trying to buy a province.
It is hard to switch out of the celestial empire government while being the EoC. All nation formation decisions and events that would normally change government are either disabled or may be taken, but will not change government type. If the existing emperor converts outside of the pagan or Eastern religion groups, the title is still retained.
Mandate is a measure of how legitimate the emperor's rule of China is viewed. It scales from 0 to 100, and gives the following modifiers, scaling linearly with malus converting to bonus at 50:
|Mandate||Low mandate||50||High mandate|
At 0 mandate:
At 100 mandate:
Mandate is affected by the following yearly modifiers (although displayed and applied monthly in-game):
- +0.24 per point of stability.
- +0.03 per state with prosperity.
- +0.15 per 100 development of tributaries.
- -10.0 per 100 development of provinces with 100% devastation, scaling with degree of devastation.
- -0.36 every five loans.
Mandate is also affected by the following monthly modifiers:
- +0.05 for Emperor with humane personality
- +0.05 for 25 years for new Chinese Emperor
- +0.05 when fighting a war with "Unify China" CB
- +0.03 Claim to the Mandate Shun country idea
- +0.05 until the end of the game as reward of Manchu mission "The Mandate of Heaven"
- +0.03 for 20 years as reward of Korean mission "Tame the Dragon"
- -0.05 for Emperor with petty personality
- -0.05 for not owning and controlling Beijing
- -0.05 for not owning and controlling Nanjing
- -0.05 for not owning and controlling Canton
- -0.3 during "Unguarded Nomadic Frontier" disaster
- -0.3 during "Empire of China in Name" disaster
- -0.1 during bankruptcy
- -1 at 100 corruption
One-time modifiers to Mandate include:
- +5 for winning a defensive war with the Take Mandate of Heaven CB.
- +25 for ending "Empire of China in Name" disaster
- +20 for ending "Unguarded Nomadic Frontier" disaster
- -10 for declining a Call to Arms from a tributary.
- -20 for triggering "Unguarded Nomadic Frontier" disaster
- -25 for triggering "Empire of China in Name" disaster
- -70 for passing a reform.
There are also many events that affect Mandate.
The emperor may pass a series of five Celestial Reforms to better govern China. Passing a reform requires at least 80 Mandate, and lowers Mandate by -70 as well as stability by -1. The reforms must be passed in order, though unlike the Holy Roman Empire's reforms, there is no special reward for completing all of them. If a new nation takes the Mandate, all reforms are lost and Mandate is reset to 60. Country formation decisions also clear all reforms.
- Effects of Celestial Reforms:
Note: The Reshape Bureaucratic Ranks reform doesn't set a minimum of 1 for rulers, but directly increases their administrative stat by 1. Due to the way ruler stats are calculated, it gives a 3/16 (18.75%) chance of getting a 6 ruler.
Scaling linearly from 0 to 100, it gives:
Meritocracy has a base annual decrease of −2. Low Confucian Harmony also decreases it, up to −2 per year at 0 Harmony. It is increased by hiring talented advisors, at +0.25 per skill rank per year, e.g. +1.25 for one level 3 advisor and two level 1 advisors. Like other government mechanics, meritocracy may be increased by 10 by spending 100 (requires ).
Meritocracy may be spent on Decrees, providing a powerful empire-wide bonus lasting for 10 years. Activating a decree costs 20 meritocracy and only one may be in effect at any given time.
List of decrees:
At peace, AI will prioritize on either tax income or provincial trade depending on the percentage of income from each type. The next most likely choice is “Expand Palace Bureaucracy”. At war, AI is more likely to choose “Boost the Officer Corps”. The likelihood of choosing “Boost the Officer Corps” or “Improve Defence Effort” increases significantly if AI considers itself in an important war. The least likely choice is to increase Ship durability although it becomes more likely if AI's navy tradition is above 50.
Being Emperor of China
The Mandate system confers steep penalties when below 50 Mandate. With 1.29, having less than 50 Mandate after the Age of Discovery will advance progress for the "Crisis of the Ming Dynasty" disaster.
Before patch 1.29, non-tributary neighbors (e.g. Russia) of the Emperor of China would cause a loss of Mandate. Much of the gameplay as the Emperor of China involved budgeting remaining tributaries (as opposed to revoking them, say, before a conquest) vs non-tributary neighbors. This can include painstaking feeding of border provinces to vassals for the sole purpose of keeping a certain large would-be neighbor away as well as confining to isolated islands when colonizing. As of patch 1.29, non-tributary neighbors no longer reduce Mandate. Thus, the Emperor of China is free to expand without worrying about coming into contact with a large neighbor resulting in near instant loss of Mandate.
It is important for an Emperor to keep the provinces of Beijing, Nanjing and Canton under control at all times, because not having them reduces Mandate by 0.05 per month for each. Likewise, for a new Emperor, it is critical to take over those provinces as soon as possible. If the Age of Discovery has passed, a potential Emperor should capture all 3 provinces before claiming the Mandate.
If the Emperor is large, nearby small countries will agree to become tributaries diplomatically. Bigger tributaries confer larger benefits. However, large countries will not agree to become tributaries without war. Thus, nurturing strong tributaries from early on is often worthwhile.
If the Emperor starts bordering a steppe horde with over 300 development (e.g. Manchu), Mandate will drop drastically as a result of the Unguarded Nomadic Frontier disaster, unless the player has more than 25% warscore / a truce / tributary status / alliance with the horde in question.
Tag switch resets the EoC reform progress as well as resetting Mandate to 60. That can be a way to handle temporary Mandate loss that spans decades in certain situations.
Highlights of benefits (Decrees and Celestial Reforms)
Early game, +25% tax income is a significant boost to the emperor's economy. It mitigates the reduction in income from local autonomy and unaccepted culture (if the emperor's primary culture is not Chinese).
Mid to late game in single-player, -10% core creation cost from “Expand Palace Bureaucracy” which adds to another -10% from “Establish Lifan Yuan” is an integral aspect of being Emperor of China. Obtaining these modifiers is one of the only ways to reach or come close to the maximum -80%. Without them, it is questionable whether it is worthwhile being hamstrung by the Mandate mechanics (pre-1.29).
Patch 1.29 introduces the "Crisis of the Ming Dynasty" disaster; progress for this disaster is advanced whenever Mandate is less than 50 after the Age of Discovery. This must be taken into consideration when analyzing the costs vs. benefits of enacting Celestial Reforms once the Age of Discovery is over.
Another strength of being Emperor of China is reduced unrest. Unrest reduction is often further enhanced by religious modifiers for nations in the region with Confucius or Buddhist religions. This perhaps resonates with real history in which many dynasties of the Chinese Empire ascribed paramount importance to social stability and provides flavor to the game.
Defeating Emperor of China
If the attacking country can cause the current Emperor of China to quickly lose the Mandate, the Emperor will be greatly weakened militarily (taking up to +50% damage during combat) and will become vulnerable to conquest.
A possible pre-1.29 strategy is to voluntarily become the tributary of Emperor and then conquer all other tributaries (because tributaries can attack each other without Emperor being involved). Then, the country can revoke its tributary status, causing a relentless loss of Mandate to start. If a country is a Steppe horde with at least 300 development, the Emperor may get the disaster Unguarded Nomadic Frontier. Additionally, an Oirat player can, through the Tumu Crisis event chain, occupy Beijing and the rest of Northern China to not only take land, but also cause devastation which can drop the mandate greatly.
The Emperor is most vulnerable after enacting a Celestial Reform, when it won't have more than 30 mandate.
Purposely stopping to be the Emperor of China
It is possible for Ming to get rid of the title of Emperor of China (becoming a normal Monarchy) by purposely losing the Mandate.
This can be done by disbanding the entire army, so that the neighboring countries would assume that Ming is weak. Eventually one of the neighboring countries would declare a war with "Take Mandate of Heaven" casus belli. Then Ming can end the war as a loss, offering "Take Mandate of Heaven" in the peace terms.
Losing the mandate causes 20 years of serious penalties. But in the early game Ming is unchallenged both militarily and economically, so it can wait it out without being threatened by anyone. Rebellions can be avoided by increasing autonomy.
As of patch 1.29, non-tributary neighbours no longer drain an Emperor's mandate, significantly reducing the downsides of being emperor. This means that unless the player desires a unique challenge, there is almost no reason to get rid of the imperial title. The Mandate of Heaven should still not be claimed until the player can maintain both Mandate (especially with the possibility of the "Crisis of the Ming Dynasty" disaster after the Age of Discovery) and Meritocracy at acceptable levels.
- See in lost_mandate_of_heaven. :
- See in CELESTIAL_EMPIRE_MODIFIER_THRESHOLD. :
- See in negative_mandate. :
- See in positive_mandate. :
- See in CELESTIAL_EMPIRE_MANDATE_. : variables with
- See in REFUSED_CALL_FROM_TRIBUTARY_MANDATE_LOSS. :
- See in CELESTIAL_EMPIRE_REFORM_. : variables with
- See in CELESTIAL_EMPIRE_DEFAULT_INFLUENCE. :
- See .
- See .