Manpower

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A country's manpower is its stock of men eligible for military service. Manpower is used to recruit and reinforce armies (except mercenaries and some special unit types). A country with exhausted manpower reserves will be crippled in its ability to wage war.

Maximum[edit]

The maximum manpower of a country is calculated as follows:

{\text{maximum manpower} = \text{manpower increase} + \sum\text{province manpower}}

Manpower increase[edit]

The base value for every country is +10 000 men.[1] Furthermore:

Manpower.png Conditions
+500 per state (excluding free cities) in the Holy Roman Empire as emperor[1]
+1 000 per free city in the Holy Roman Empire as emperor[1]
+100 000 as invasion nation[1]

Province manpower[edit]

Province manpower is the amount of soldiers each province contributes to the national manpower maximum. It is computed as follows:

{\text{province manpower} = \text{base} \cdot \text{manpower efficiency}} \cdot \text{local autonomy}^{[*]}

Note: Provinces of the Cossacks.png cossacks, Nobility.png nobility and Tribes tribes estates are not affected from multiplicative local autonomy effects on province manpower.

Base[edit]

Province base manpower in 1444.

Base manpower is determined by the level of military development in a province. Each level of military development adds 250 men[2] to the province base manpower. The starting development level of a province is a preset in the game files[3]. See the list of provinces for these values.

With the Common Sense.png Common Sense expansion enabled, the military development level of a province can be increased by spending military points. It can also be modified by a few special events, decisions and missions.

When hovering over the manpower value in the top bar of the ingame UI, the amount of manpower gained from provinces can be seen. This amount is only affected by local modifiers. The country-wide modifiers take affect on the total amount of manpower.

Manpower efficiency[edit]

Manpower efficiency is the sum of all manpower modifiers of a province.

National manpower modifier[edit]

National manpower modifier.png Conditions
+50% with difficulty set to ‘very easy’
+30% with the Crusade triggered modifier
+25% as March icon.png march[1]
+10% as Government monarchy.png feudal monarchy
+10% as Government monarchy.png enlightened despotism
+25% as Government monarchy.png revolutionary empire
+20% as Government monarchy.png tsardom
+10% /+20%/+30% as Government steppe horde.png steppe nomads (modified by government rank)
+10% with Freya.png Freya as personal deity as Norse nation
+10% with a Advisor Master recruiter.png master recruiter advisor
+10% as Revolution target.png revolution target[1]
+5% with Parliament.png parliament and “Conduct Nationwide Census” as active issue
+0.2% for each percentage point of Legalism Legalism (positive piety) as a Muslim nation[1]
−10% with Guilds the guilds in power as merchant republic
−25% during the Plutocratic Coup.png Plutocratic Coup disaster
−25% during the Janissary Coup.png Janissary Decadence disaster

Ideas and policies:

National manpower modifier.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+50%
  • Quantity idea 1: Levée en Masse
+33%
  • Russian traditions
  • Aristocratic idea 4: Serfdom
  • Italian (cU) idea 4: The Office of Censor
  • Tverian idea 7: National Army
  • Roman ambition
+25%
  • Desmondian traditions
  • Great Yuan traditions
  • Golden Horde traditions
  • Aq Qoyunlu idea 4: Dynastic Appanages
  • Burgundian idea 7: Create the Regimental System
  • Burmese idea 1: Mandala System
  • Crimean idea 7: Accept Nogai Protectorates
  • Dai Viet idea 4: Village Militia
  • Daimyo idea 6: Armies of the Daimyo
  • Horde idea 7: The Glory of Conquest
  • Hosokawa idea 5: Ashigaru
  • Iroquois idea 2: Keepers of the Western Door
  • Kazani idea 4: Legacy of the Great Horde
  • Polish idea 3: Piechota Wybraniecka
  • Prussian idea 6: Regimental Cantons
  • Qara Qoyunlu 1: The Black Sheep
  • Shan idea 7: Expansionism
  • Tuscan idea 7: Territorial Ambition
  • Aztec ambition
  • Chinese ambition
  • Jerusalem ambition
+20%
  • French traditions
  • Hatakeyama traditions
  • Hindustani traditions
  • Rassid traditions
  • Shiba traditions
  • Yamana traditions
  • Afghan idea 3: Tureh
  • Ava idea 5: Recruit from the Hill Tribes
  • Bengali idea 3: Bengal's Endlessly Productive Rice Fields
  • Chernihiv idea 3: Expand Regimental Barracks
  • Cherokee idea 3: Red Chiefs
  • Hungarian idea 2: Bulwark of Christianity
  • Japanese idea 2: Reformed Land Holding
  • Lur idea 3: A Haven for Dissenters
  • Native idea 6: War and Peace Chiefs
  • Novgorod idea 5: Grand Duke’s Army
  • Oda idea 7: Kenchi
  • Otomo idea 1: Unite the Clans
  • Punjabi idea 4: The Khalsa
  • Scottish idea 3: Rein in the Clans
  • Shawnee idea 7: Private War Parties
  • Utsunomiya idea 5: Unify the Shimotsuke Lands
  • Wallachian idea 7: Abolition of Serfdom
  • Khmer ambition
  • Milanese ambition
  • Neapolitan ambition
  • Semien ambition
  • Zaporozhian ambition
+15%
  • Arabian traditions
  • Ardabili traditions
  • Bengal Sultanate traditions
  • Caucasian traditions
  • Gond traditions
  • Holstein traditions
  • Lunda traditions
  • Ruthenian traditions
  • West African traditions
  • Albanian idea 7: Break The Power Of Princes
  • Ashanti idea 5: Centralized Coalition
  • Ayyubid idea 2: Ancestral Heritage
  • Baluch idea 4: Reorganization of the Army
  • Chosokabe idea 2: Seven Clans of Tosa
  • Creek idea 5: Micos Leadership
  • Dahomey idea 2: Slave Hunts
  • Estonian idea 1: Brotherhood of Blackheads
  • Farsi idea 6: Integrate the Qashqai
  • Garjati idea 3: Tribal Feudatories
  • Guarani idea 5: Missions Settlements
  • Hadramhi idea 2: Tribes of Hadramut
  • Hojo idea 6: Unification of Kanto
  • Interlacustrine idea 1: Source of the Nile
  • Kutai idea 5: Encourage Immigration
  • Malvi idea 1: The Rajputs Malwa
  • Mewari idea 5: Recall the Purbias
  • Montenegrin idea 7: Cojstvo I Junastvo
  • Muiscan idea 4: The Tale of Bochica
  • Mushasha idea 4: Arabistan
  • Nepali idea 3: Our Valleys United
  • Offaly idea 7: The Buannacht
  • Ogasawara idea 4: Unification of the Kori
  • Persian idea 1: The Qizilbash
  • Rajput idea 1: Clan Loyalties
  • Rajputana idea 2: King of Petty Princes
  • Ryazan idea 1: The Arsenal of Ryazan
  • Siberian idea 6: Successful Raids
  • Somali idea 3: Somali Clans
  • Tapuian idea 7: Unite The Tribes
  • Tarascan idea 6: Otomi Settlements
  • Toki idea 3: Banner of Bellflower
  • Tumbuka idea 2: Central Melting Pot
  • Tupi idea 4: Slash And Burn
  • Tyrone idea 4: Arming the People
  • Württemberger idea 2: Swabian League
  • Ainu ambition
  • Miao ambition
  • Sindhi ambition
+10%
  • Assamese traditions
  • Beninese traditions
  • Dali traditions
  • Hejazi traditions
  • Lan Na traditions
  • Mapuche traditions
  • Maratha traditions
  • Moravian traditions
  • Sami traditions
  • Swiss traditions
  • Transylvanian traditions
  • Ulster traditions
  • Zambezi traditions
  • Ajami idea 5: Tribes of Iraq-e Ajam
  • Anatolian idea 2: Seljuq Marches
  • Ayutthayan idea 2: The Corvee System
  • Byzantine idea 2: Repopulation of the Countryside
  • Carib idea 7: Integrate the Garifuna
  • Chimu idea 7: The Mit'a
  • Danziger idea 3: Centralized Population
  • Granada idea 6: Moors
  • Highlander idea 6: The Arming Act
  • Incan idea 4: Drafted Hatun Runas
  • Indian Sultanate idea 4: Counting the People
  • Kangra idea 2: Riches of the Kangra Valley
  • Khorasani idea 3: Princely Appanages
  • Kildarean idea 7: Royal Irish Army
  • Kongolese idea 2: Elephant Hunts
  • Korean idea 5: The Hopae System
  • Kurdish idea 3: Kurdish Tribes
  • Mahri idea 3: The Mahra Tribes
  • Malagasy idea 4: Martial Traditions
  • Malian idea 3: Reclamation of Land
  • Manchu idea 1: United Three Jurchens
  • Manipur idea 5: Unite the Hill Tribes
  • Maravi idea 3: A Fertile Land
  • Romanian idea 5: Peasant Soldierss
  • Siddi idea 4: The Siddi Diaspora
  • South Indian idea 3: Polygar System
  • Swedish idea 7: Union and Security Act
  • Yarkandi idea 6: Black Mountain and White Mountain
  • Yemeni idea 5: Uniting the Yemeni Tribes
  • Deccani Sultanate ambition
  • Mindanao ambition
  • Telugu ambition
  • Administrative-Plutocratic: The Land Inheritance Act
  • Quantity-Exploration: Hired Adventurers
+5%
  • National idea 5: Peasant Levy

Local manpower modifier[edit]

Local manpower modifier.png Conditions
+100% Latin training fields.png Training Fields
+75% Core Icon.png Core province[1]
+50% Latin barracks.png Barracks
+50% Native great trail.png Great Trail (native building)
+33% Tribes Tribes estate with at least 40 loyalty
+33% Patriarch authority.png Patriarch authority at 100% (in Orthodoxy Orthodox provinces)[1]
+25% Base[1]
+20% Nobility.png Nobility estate with at least 40 loyalty
+20% Cossacks.png Cossacks estate with at least 60 loyalty
+10% Government republic.png Republican cultural sufferance as non-tribal republic[1]
+10% Parliament.png Seat in parliament[1]
−15% Culture icon.png Non-accepted culture in the primary culture group[1]
−33% Culture icon.png Non-accepted culture in a culture group other than the primary[1]
−50% Occupation[1]
−100% Subject tradecompany icon.pngTrade company[1]

Using manpower[edit]

Raising new regiments, as well as replenishing existing ones that have lost men due to battles or attrition, will draw men from the manpower pool. Mercenaries do not require manpower to raise or reinforce, but are much more expensive and are only available in limited amounts. All regiment types (infantry/cavalry/artillery) require the same amount of manpower. Nation-specific special units, such as Russian streltsy and Ottoman janissaries, as well as units created through estate interactions, don't cost manpower to raise but do require it to reinforce.

Manpower recovery[edit]

Manpower replenishes over time until it reaches the maximum level. It takes a base time of 10 years[2] to fill the manpower reserves from zero. The monthly recovery rate is:

{\text{monthly manpower recovery} = \frac{\text{manpower increase} + \sum\text{province manpower} \cdot (1+\text{manpower recovery speed})}{120}}

or 100,[2] whichever is greater.

Manpower recovery speed[edit]

Manpower recovery speed modifies the recovery rate of province manpower.

Manpower recovery speed.png Conditions
+100%.0 as invasion nation[1]
+50%.0 with enabled player or AI bonuses.[1]
+20%.0 as March icon.png march[1]
+15%.0 as Fetishist Fetishist nation with Cult Enkai.png Cult of Enkai.
+15%.0 as Catholicism Catholic nation with Papal action“Proclaim holy war”
+10%.0 as Orthodoxy Orthodox nation with Icon of St. Michael active
+10%.0 with Parliament.png parliament and “Support the War Effort” as active issue
+10%.0 with China temple.png the temples in power as celestial empire (without Mandate of Heaven.png)
+10%.0 with “Parish Registers” aspect as Protestantism Protestant country
+10%.0 as Inti.png Inti country with Organized Recruitment reform.
+5%.0 for trading in Cocoa.png cocoa
+0.5% for each percentage point of Revanchism icon.png revanchism[1]
+0.2% for each point of Militarization of state.png militarization as Flag of Prussia Prussia
+0.1% for each point of Army tradition.png army tradition[1]
−1%.0 for each point of Icon war exhaustion.png war exhaustion[1]
−20%.0 for having Recruitment Sabotaged [1]
−100%.0 if bankrupt[1]

Ideas and policies:

Manpower recovery speed.png Traditions Ideas Bonuses Policies
+20%
  • Rûmi traditions
  • Plutocratic idea 7: Emancipation
  • Quantity idea 2: The Young can Serve
  • Anatolian idea 4: Ghazi
  • Cossack idea 1: Escaped Serfs
  • Georgian idea 5: Sadrosho Districts
  • Golden Horde idea 5: Logistics of the Khan
  • Horde idea 6: Logistics of the Khan
  • Iroquois idea 5: Mourning Wars
  • Karamanid idea 2: Ghazi
  • Liège idea 2: The Wars of Liège
  • Manchu idea 5: The Green Standard Army
  • Ottoman idea 2: Ghazi
  • Romanian idea 1: Flexible Recruiting
  • Swedish idea 4: Indelningsverket
  • Rigan ambition
  • Wallachian ambition
+15%
  • Divine traditions
  • Native traditions
  • Maratha traditions
  • Lithuanian traditions
  • Serbian traditions
  • Tyrconnell traditions
  • Assamese idea 4: Reform the Paik System
  • Catalan idea 5: Miquelets
  • Hanseatic idea 5: Hanseatic Levy System
  • Knights Hospitaller idea 2: Assistance to the Suffering
  • Mamluk idea 3: Purchase New Mamluks
  • Ryazan idea 3: Land Charters
  • Shimazu idea 2: Satsunan School
  • Teutonic idea 2: Recruit Peasants
  • Württemberger idea 4: Swabian Circle
  • Chiba ambition
  • Hojo ambition
  • Mexican ambition
  • Shan ambition
+10%
  • Albanian traditions
  • Ardabili traditions
  • Chinese traditions
  • Imerina traditions
  • Nepalese Princedom traditions
  • Nepali traditions
  • Rajput traditions
  • Ruthenian traditions
  • Tupi traditions
  • Yaroslavlyian traditions
  • Zaporozhian traditions
  • Aztec idea 3: Telpochcalli
  • Bahmani idea 1: Gharbians
  • Crimean idea 6: Settle the Crimean Steppe
  • Danish idea 1: Vornedskap
  • Lunda idea 4: An Army Overnight
  • Luxembourg idea 5: The Spanish Road
  • Moldavian idea 2: Razesi Peasants
  • Nivernais idea 6: Morvan Wet Nurses
  • Persian idea 6: Promotion of Irrigation
  • Highlander ambition
  • Tarascan ambition
  • Yi ambition
  • Administrative-Quantity: Provincial Taxation System
  • Quality-Exploration: Superior Supply Systems
+5%
  • Danziger idea 6: Continued Independence

Estates:

Manpower recovery speed.png Estate
+5% - +20% with loyal Nobility.pngnobility estate (scaled by influence)
+5% - +20% with neutral Nobility.pngnobility estate (scaled by influence)
−2.5% - −10% with disloyal Nobility.pngnobility estate (scaled by influence)
+5% - +20% with loyal Tribestribes estate (scaled by influence)
+5% - +20% with neutral Tribestribes estate (scaled by influence)
−10% - −40% with disloyal Tribestribes estate (scaled by influence)

Strategy[edit]

Manpower is one of the three greatest limits on a nation's ability to expand, the others being money and monarch points. As a small nation it accumulates slowly and can be consumed in large amounts by a single unsuccessful battle. Some things to keep in mind to save or conserve manpower are:

  • Rebels eat up valuable manpower for no gain. Keeping unrest low, through harsh treatment, is equivalent to trading monarch points for manpower. Other methods of lowering unrest (raising autonomy, hiring an advisor, etc.) trade money for manpower, so balance assets in short supply against those that are more plentiful.
  • Once a nation has replenished its manpower pool up to the maximum, any excess manpower is not accrued and essentially lost. Consider raising new regiments, even exceeding the force limit if money is plentiful, in order to stockpile manpower.
  • Mercenaries don't cost national manpower, but draw from a seemingly endless pool of their own, and they do cost extra cash, but cannot be drilled. In most situations they should not be kept around during peacetime, but just prior to or at the outbreak of war, augmenting an army with a percentage of mercenaries (typically just infantry) can stretch a nation's manpower budget. The exact percentage of mercenaries to national units will depend on amount of manpower remaining and proximity to victory.
  • Full strength units do more damage than reduced strength ones. Consider consolidating regiments in an army after a battle but don't do so consistently if the units are only slightly to moderately damaged and may reinforce up to full strength before the next anticipated battle.
  • Each regiment in an army (of a particular type) reinforces at the same rate and costs the same to reinforce. The more regiments are below full strength, the faster the army will reinforce, but also the more money you will spend on reinforcing it. So if you need to fill a partial army quickly, it is better not to consolidate early; conversely, if your income is poor and you already have many loans, it may be better to consolidate some to reduce reinforcement costs.
  • If shift-consolidating units, decide whether to save the emptied regiments, which can take between 5 and 20 months to completely refill, or disband them and recruit new regiments which will only take from one to three months, but will then need time to recover morale and be moved into place near the war-zone, and will have zero drill.
  • Unless the manpower pool is at maximum, avoid attrition whenever possible. For short sea voyages, set sail at the beginning of the month as units at sea suffer attrition and it is senseless to lose a month's worth of manpower while sailing between ports that are less than a month apart.
  • Also on attrition, sieges are great consumers of manpower. Try to keep only slightly more than the required numbers to hold the siege. Disease outbreak will eat up 10% of a besieging force, so at least that much more is prudent but be prepared to add to the siege force periodically if numbers drop too close to the minimum required to advance it.
  • Having manpower to refill units is, arguably, more important than having a greater force cap. That makes Latin barracks.png barracks and training fields more important than regimental camps and conscription centers.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/static_modifiers/00_static_modifiers.txt (Static modifiers).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua.
  3. See the files in /Europa Universalis IV/history/provinces.
Warfare
Land warfare ArmyLand unitsDisciplineManpower
Naval warfare NavyNaval unitsSailors
Other concepts Casus belliWar exhaustionMilitary traditionLeadersAlliance
Province mechanics
Management CapitalCoreCultureReligionRebellionAutonomyList of provinces
Economy DevelopmentTaxProductionBuildingsManpowerSailors