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Kingdom rankMamluks
The Mamluks.png
Primary culture
Egyptian (Levantine)

Capital province
Cairo (361)

Mamluk Government Government monarchy.png

State religion

Technology group
MuslimMuslim technology group
Mamluk ideas
Ambox outdated info.png Please help with verifying or updating this infobox. It was last verified for version 1.33.

Traditions.png Traditions:

+10% Cavalry combat ability
+25% Trade steering

Trade power.png Red Sea Trade

+5% Global trade power
+10% Trade range

Yearly prestige.png Monuments to our Greatness

+1 Yearly prestige

Manpower recovery speed.png Purchase New Mamluks

+15% Manpower recovery speed

Discipline.png Reform of the Army

+5% Discipline

Production efficiency.png Reform the Fellah System

+10% Production efficiency

Stability cost modifier.png Reform of the Succession

−15% Stability cost modifier

Trade efficiency.png Monopoly Ports

+10% Trade efficiency

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

+25% Provincial trade power modifier
Shield Mamluks.png
Once the elite of the Ayyubid armies, in 1250 the Mamluks went from slave servants to the masters of a realm at the very heart of the Islamic World. From their capital in Cairo the Mamluk households control Egypt and Syria as well as the Abbasid Caliph himself. In the north Mamluk influence is felt from the beyliks of Anatolia to the shores of Lake Van. In the south they serve as protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina in the Flag of Hejaz Hejaz as well as influencing the politics of Flag of Yemen Yemen. Even the Christian empire of Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia must be attentive to the word of the Mamluk Sultan, as the Coptic pope, the ordainer of all Ethiopian bishops, is under Mamluk care.

The Mamluk amirs reproduce their ranks by purchasing new mamluks, foreign slaves mostly of Circassian origin. These slaves are then trained as soldiers or stewards, who all swear allegiance to their buyer, or 'foster-father'. The amirs in turn put their household to use in the service of the sultans. When the time for succession comes it is in practice the will of these powerful men that determines which amir will become the next sultan. This system ensures that the sultanate is never short of elite warriors, so long as the route to import more slaves from the Black Sea lies open. However, as a governing system it has more than once lead to damaging conflicts and paralyzing factionalism.

The future looks bright for the Mamluk Sultanate however, as the death of Timur has removed the greatest threat in the region, with the once expansive Flag of Timurids Timurid Empire now reduced to a few bickering successor states in Persia and Transoxiana. The vacuum left by this empire in Anatolia, the Caucasus and Iraq has been filled by the Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu Federation in the east, and the resurgent Flag of Ottomans Ottoman Empire in the west. Both seem destined to come into conflict with the Mamluks in the near future.

The wealth of the sultanate is fed by the trade that flows through its Egyptian lands, bridging the distance between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. This places great demands on the Mamluk fleets to battle Christian pirates in the north as well as to protect the huge vulnerable vessels that follow the Hejaz coastline with coffee, cloth and spices through the Red Sea.

As 1444 draws to an end the Mamluk Sultanate is still the largest, richest and strongest state in the Middle East, it has many enemies but fears few of them.

The Mamluks control Egypt and Syria at the start of the game, but were historically conquered by the Ottomans in the 16th century. They guarantee the independence of Medina and Flag of Cyprus Cyprus while Flag of Hejaz Hejaz and Flag of Fadl Fadl are their vassals. They are Sunni with the Shafi'i school Shafi'i school and have the unique Mamluk government. The Mamluks sit on the main trade nodes directing trade from India and China to Europe. They are the only nation that can form Flag of Egypt Egypt without culture shifting.

Mamluk government[edit | edit source]

The Mamluk government is a unique type of government for the Flag of Mamluks Mamluks with great emphasis on Culture icon.png culture, especially ruler culture. It gives the following benefits:

  • Max promoted cultures.png +3 Max promoted cultures
  • Autonomy.png −0.025 Monthly autonomy change
  • Administrative power.png +2 Monarch administrative skill (for future monarchs)
  • Cost of advisors with ruler's culture −25% Cost of advisors with ruler's culture
  • Promote culture cost.png −50% Promote culture cost
  • Governing capacity.png +50 Governing capacity
  • Nobility influence.png +10% Nobility influence

Forming the Mamluks or playing as the Mamluks is the only way to acquire this government type. This reform can be kept as long as the country is a monarchy and follows a religion in the muslim group. If the first government reform is changed (e.g. by forming Flag of Egypt Egypt or Flag of Persia Persia), it is possible to switch back to this reform as long as the country is a muslim monarchy.

Note: The Mamluk government doesn't set a minimum of 2 Administrative power.png for rulers, but directly increases their administrative stat by 2. Due to the way ruler stats are calculated, it gives a 6/16 or 37.5% chance of getting a 6 Administrative power.png ruler.

Normal Administrative power.png Chance Mamluk Administrative power.png Chance
0 1/16 N/A 0
1 2/16 N/A 0
2 3/16 2 (0 + 2) 1/16
3 4/16 3 (1 + 2) 2/16
4 3/16 4 (2 + 2) 3/16
5 2/16 5 (3 + 2) 4/16
6 1/16 6 (4 + 2) 3/16
N/A 0 6 (5 + 2)↓ 2/16
N/A 0 6 (6 + 2)↓ 1/16
  • ↓ indicates rounding down

Mamluk succession[edit | edit source]

A Mamluk government does not produce heirs. Instead, the ruler of the sultanate is chosen by event when the preceding ruler dies. There is one candidate for each culture accepted in the country, plus a Circassian candidate, but their stats cannot be seen prior to choosing, only their ages, cultures and claim strengths. The claim of each candidate is equal to 100 minus the percentage of their culture in the total cored Development.png state development of the country. For example, if the Egyptian culture makes up 75% of the nation's state cored development, an Egyptian ruler will start its reign with Legitimacy.png 25 legitimacy. If chosen, the Circassian ruler will start with Legitimacy.png 100 legitimacy, and will also provide Army tradition.png 15 army tradition. An important advantage of this system is that the is no stability Stability.png loss when a Monarch die, so it's far easier for Mamluks to have 3 stability and make monarchs generals have no real downside, and in fact can have an upside to military.

Cultural interactions[edit | edit source]

Each year, this government gathers 3 + ruler skill power in each monarch power categories (Administrative power.png/Diplomatic power.png/Military power.png). Once 100 power in a category is reached, the related cultural interaction can be activated:

Icon Ability Type Effects
Promote culture in government.png Promote ruler culture in Government Administrative power.png

All power costs.png −5% All power costs for 1 year.

Sell off culture slaves.png Sell off ruler culture Slaves Diplomatic power.png Gold Icon.png Gain two times current age times Development.png development of ruler culture ducats
Recruit from culture lands.png Recruit from ruler culture Lands Military power.png Manpower.png Gain 50 times current age times Development.png development of ruler culture manpower

The current age multiplier is 1 for the Age of Discovery.png 'Age of Discovery', 2 for the Age of Reformation.png 'Age of Reformation', 3 for the Age of Absolutism.png 'Age of Absolutism' and 4 for the Age of Revolutions.png 'Age of Revolutions'.

Two out of three of these interactions are more powerful if the ruler culture is dominant in the country. However, rulers from a dominant culture start their reign with reduced Legitimacy.png legitimacy, as explained above.

If not activated the points continue to gather until 150 is reached and any more is lost. The points will also reset if the current ruler dies.

Missions[edit | edit source]

Main article: Mamluk missions

Events[edit | edit source]

Main article: Mamluk events

Mamluk's events mostly focus on their relationship with Flag of Cyprus Cyprus, the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans, and Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia, but that mainly deals with the Coptic Patriarch in Cairo.

Reformation[edit | edit source]

The Mamluks can be reformed by Muslim nations if they cease to exist. The formation does not have any culture requirement.


Execute decision.pngAdopt Mamluk Government

The Mamluks are still a strong factor in this region. We could gain their support by inviting these seasoned soldier slaves to participate in our government.

Potential requirements

The country:

If the country is AI-controlled then:


The Flag of Mamluks Mamluks do not exist.
The country:


The country:

If Cairo (361) is part of the HRE, but its owner is not a member then:

  • the province is removed from the HRE.
  • the Holy Roman Emperor:
    • gets the opinion modifier “Removed provinces from the Empire” towards the owner, worth Opinion.png−50 opinion with a yearly decay of 1.
    • loses Imperial authority.png1 imperial authority.

Cairo (361):

  • becomes the new capital of the owner country.

The AI will always take this decision, unless it has an Administrative technology.png administrative technology of less than 20.

Decisions[edit | edit source]


Execute decision.pngForm Arabian Nation

For hundreds of years the Arabs have been divided, but we remember when the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, organized all of us into one ummah, a community of the faithful that transcended tribal affiliation. Today we have overcome disunity and regained the oneness that triumphed in the day of the Prophet and united Arabia

Potential requirements

Flag of Arabia Arabia does not exist.
The country:

If the country is AI-controlled then it:

Playing with normal or historical nations


The country:


The country:

  • becomes Flag of Arabia Arabia.
  • gains Yearly prestige.png 25 prestige.
  • becomes an Empire rank empire.
  • removes all provinces from the Holy Roman Empire, if it is a member and not an elector or the emperor.
  • gains permanent claims on:
  • gets “Increased Centralization” for Time Icon.png 20 years, giving:
    • Autonomy.png −0.05 monthly autonomy change,
    • National unrest.png +1 national unrest.

The AI will never take this decision.

Strategy[edit | edit source]

Strategy The below is one of many player suggested strategies for Mamluks. Bear in mind, due to the dynamic nature of the game, it may unfold differently for other players.

The Mamluks have a strategic position between Africa, Asia and Europe, so the aggressive expansion can and should be distributed across the three continents to allow more expansion. The Mamluks can also vassalize many of its small neighbours in Arabia, Maghreb or Anatolia, but they must be ready to protect them against the Flag of Ottomans Ottomans' threat.

Neighbours[edit | edit source]

The Mamlukean neighbors are Flag of Fezzan Fezzan at the west, Flag of Makuria Makuria, Flag of Medri Bahri Medri Bahri and Flag of Beja Beja in the south, Flag of Medina Medina at the south-east and Flag of Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu, Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu, Flag of Ramazan Ramazan and Flag of Dulkadir Dulkadir in the north and north-east. In the east, Mamluks borders Flag of Fadl Fadl and Flag of Anizah Anizah.

Expansion into the West[edit | edit source]

In the west, the Mamluks' border is composed of Flag of Fezzan Fezzan. Fezzan can be and should be easily vassalized (due to coring costs making it expensive to core), and Fezzan also opens the door toward Flag of Djerid Djerid, Flag of Touggourt Touggourt and Flag of Mzab Mzab (if Tunis didn't annex them earlier). Control of Maghreb is easy, except Flag of Tunis Tunis, who can sometimes ally with Flag of Ottomans Ottomans. One strategy is become a great power and force Tunis to break their alliance with Ottomans. Another strategy is to use "threaten war", in order to take the Tunisian provinces one by one. A third strategy is to quickly focus on Tunis before they get powerful allies.

Expansion into the South[edit | edit source]

In the south, Mamluks borders 3 small countries : Flag of Makuria Makuria, Flag of Beja Beja and Flag of Medri Bahri Medri Bahri. The player can easily conquer them, but the real threat from the south is Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia. Ethiopia typically annexes these neighbours quickly near the beginning of the game, and wishes to conquer the Coptic shrines in the Mamlukean territory. However they can be defeated alone or for new players, it is recommended to get alliance with Flag of Adal Adal to open a second front onto the Ethiopians and conquer their provinces or halt their growth at least.

Expansion into the South-East[edit | edit source]

If the player wants to expand their empire into the south-east, they should diplo-vassalize Flag of Medina Medina, which blocks them from having a land border with their subject Flag of Hejaz Hejaz, doing this you are given an event that lets Hejaz inherit Medina . Medina also controls the one holy city not owned by Mamluks or a subject, Medina, and typically has few powerful allies. Annexing/Vassalizing the coast of the Arabian peninsula also allows blocking the Ethiopian's advance into Arabia quickly.

Expansion into the North and North-East[edit | edit source]

In the north, there is one OPM, Flag of Ramazan Ramazan and one minor country, Flag of Dulkadir Dulkadir. If the player wants to annex them, they should invade them soon as the Ottomans will want those provinces in order to limit Mamlukean expansion. On the north-east border, there are two hordes, Flag of Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu and Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu. Aq Qoyunlu isn't very powerful and is in the same situation as Dulkadir and Ramazan: Ottomans will want their provinces eventually, but one has time. Qara Qoyunlu is stronger and can be a threat if not controlled.

Expansion into the Mediterranean Sea[edit | edit source]

The Mediterranean's isles are almost all controlled by Flag of Venice Venice, which is very likely a Mamlukean rival. The biggest challenge when facing Venice is, of course, its fleet, the great 'Arsenal of Venice', which outnumbers the Mamlukean fleet. The player is recommended to build a lot of galleys if they want to destroy the Venetian fleet and so be able to transport troops into Venice's heart lands. The player can also annex Flag of Cyprus Cyprus, but for that they need to revoke their guarantee of Cyprus (which can then be annexed by Ottomans or Venice before the truce expires and so is risky). An alternative way to annex Cyprus is to vassalize them first, but will take longer. After annexing Cyprus, the player can fabricate a claim on Flag of The Knights The Knights, and, after invading the Knights, they can claim Negroponte and Flag of Naxos Naxos.

Countering the Ottomans[edit | edit source]

The Flag of Ottomans Ottomans have a powerful army, and are the biggest threat the player faces in the beginning (historically being responsible for the Mamlukean decline). The Ottomans are sometimes allied with Flag of Tunis Tunis, but Tunis is nowhere near as powerful, and with a strong ally, Mamluks can beat Tunis and Ottomans easily. One of the best strategies to counter the Ottomans is to ally with some strong local powers like Flag of Austria Austria, Flag of Muscovy Muscovy, Flag of Hungary Hungary, or Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu if not rivaled. Allying with one of these powers will allow an attack against the Ottomans from two fronts, making it easier to beat them. An alliance with Flag of Castile Castile/Flag of Spain Spain is another possibility in order to destroy the Ottomans' fleet, since without destroying the Ottomans' fleet, it will be harder for troops to cross the Marmara Sea and capture the Ottomans' capital, Edirne, or Constantinople if Byzantium is already annexed. An early no-CB war on Flag of Byzantium Byzantium in order to annex Constantinople and prevent Ottoman expansion should be considered. Fabricating claim on Teke and declaring war on Ottomans when they are at war with Flag of Byzantium Byzantium is a good strategy. Naval supremacy can be achieved by going over force limit with galleys, using the free oarsmen navy doctrine and hiring a naval reform advisor. Player should prioritise taking Biga to prevent Ottomans from crossing . After winning the war player should take the entire Anatolian coastline in the peace deal. Vassalizing Flag of Dulkadir Dulkadir and Flag of Ramazan Ramazan should be easy at this point.

Achievements[edit | edit source]

The Levant Turnabout icon
As the Mamluks, have 100 Army Professionalism and annex the Ottomans.

Country guides

Central African technology group Central African.png Kuba.png KubaMutapa.png Mutapa
East African technology group East African.png Ethiopia.png EthiopiaMogadishu.png Mogadishu
Muslim technology group Muslim.png The Mamluks.png MamluksMorocco.png MoroccoTlemcen.png TlemcenTunis.png Tunis
West African technology group West African.png Air.png AirMali.png Mali

Eastern technology group Eastern.png Jerusalem.png Jerusalem Karabakh.png Karabakh
Muslim technology group Muslim.png Afghanistan.png Afghanistan Ajam.png Ajam Arabia.png Arabia Ardabil.png Ardabil Hisn Kayfa.png Hisn Kayfa Hormuz.png Hormuz Oman.png Oman Mushasha.png Mushasha Timurids.png Timurids Qara Qoyunlu.png Qara Qoyunlu
Indian technology group Indian.png Assam.png Assam Bahmanis.png Bahmanis Bengal.png Bengal Orissa.png Orissa
Chinese technology group Chinese.png Bali.png Bali Brunei.png Brunei Dai Viet.png Dai Viet Japan.png Japan Khmer.png Khmer Korea.png Korea Majapahit.png Majapahit Malaya.png Malaya Pagarruyung.png Pagarruyung Pasai.png Pasai Sunda.png Sunda
Nomadic technology group Nomadic.png Jianzhou.png Jianzhou Uzbek.png Uzbek Mongolia.png Mongolia

Western technology group Western.png United States.png United States
Mesoamerican technology group Mesoamerican.png Maya.png Maya
North American technology group North American.png Caddo.png Caddo Cherokee.png Cherokee Iroquois.png Iroquois

Andean technology group Andean.png Chachapoya.png Chachapoya Cusco.png Cusco Muisca.png Muisca
South American technology group South American.png Mapuche.png Mapuche