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Mamluks

Kingdom rankMamluks
The Mamluks.png
Primary culture
Egyptian (Arabic)

Capital province
Cairo (361)

Government
Mamluk GovernmentGovernment monarchy.png

State religion
SunniSunni.png

Technology group
MuslimMuslim technology group
Mamluk ideas
Traditions.png Traditions:
+10% Cavalry combat ability
+25% Trade steering

Trade power.png Red Sea Trade

+5% Global trade power
+10% Trade range

Prestige.png Monuments to our Greatness

+1 Yearly prestige

Manpower recovery speed.png Purchase New Mamluks

+15% Manpower recovery speed

Discipline.png Reform of the Army

+5% Discipline

Production efficiency.png Reform the Fellah System

+10% Production efficiency

Stability cost modifier.png Reform of the Succession

−15% Stability cost modifier

Trade efficiency.png Monopoly Ports

+10% Trade efficiency

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

+25% Provincial trade power modifier
Shield Mamluks.png
Once the elite of the Ayyubid armies, in 1250 the Mamluks went from slave servants to the masters of a realm at the very heart of the Islamic World. From their capital in Cairo the Mamluk households control Egypt and Syria as well as the Abbasid Caliph himself. In the north Mamluk influence is felt from the beyliks of Anatolia to the shores of Lake Van. In the south they serve as protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina in the Flag of Hejaz Hejaz as well as influencing the politics of Flag of Yemen Yemen. Even the Christian empire of Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia must be attentive to the word of the Mamluk Sultan, as the Coptic pope, the ordainer of all Ethiopian bishops, is under Mamluk care.

The Mamluk amirs reproduce their ranks by purchasing new mamluks, foreign slaves mostly of Circassian origin. These slaves are then trained as soldiers or stewards, who all swear allegiance to their buyer, or 'foster-father'. The amirs in turn put their household to use in the service of the sultans. When the time for succession comes it is in practice the will of these powerful men that determines which amir will become the next sultan. This system ensures that the sultanate is never short of elite warriors, so long as the route to import more slaves from the Black Sea lies open. However, as a governing system it has more than once lead to damaging conflicts and paralyzing factionalism.

The future looks bright for the Mamluk Sultanate however, as the death of Timur has removed the greatest threat in the region, with the once expansive Flag of Timurids Timurid Empire now reduced to a few bickering successor states in Persia and Transoxiana. The vacuum left by this empire in Anatolia, the Caucasus and Iraq has been filled by the Flag of Qara Qoyunlu Qara Qoyunlu Federation in the east, and the resurgent Flag of Ottomans Ottoman Empire in the west. Both seem destined to come into conflict with the Mamluks in the near future.

The wealth of the sultanate is fed by the trade that flows through its Egyptian lands, bridging the distance between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. This places great demands on the Mamluk fleets to battle Christian pirates in the north as well as to protect the huge vulnerable vessels that follow the Hejaz coastline with coffee, cloth and spices through the Red Sea.

As 1444 draws to an end the Mamluk Sultanate is still the largest, richest and strongest state in the Middle East, it has many enemies but fears few of them.

The Mamluks control Egypt and Syria at the start of the game, but were historically conquered by the Ottomans in the 16th century. They guarantee the independence of Medina and Flag of Cyprus Cyprus while Flag of Hejaz Hejaz and Flag of Fadl Fadl are their vassals. They are Sunni with the Shafi'i school Shafi'i school and have the unique Mamluk government. The Mamluks sit on the main trade nodes directing trade from India and China to Europe. They are the only nation that can form Flag of Egypt Egypt without culture shifting.

Contents

Mamluk governmentEdit

The Mamluk government is a unique type of government for the   Mamluks with great emphasis on   culture, especially ruler culture. It gives the following benefits:

  •   −0.025 Monthly autonomy change
  •   +3 Max promoted cultures
  •   +1 Number of states
  •   +2 Monarch administrative skill (for future monarchs)
  •   −25% Cost of advisors with ruler's culture
  •   −50% Promote culture cost

Forming the Mamluks or playing as the Mamluks is the only way to acquire this government type. If this government type is lost, such as by forming a country that changes the government type (e.g.   Egypt, which becomes a monarchy), or if the government type is changed by the Revolution disaster or by rebels, the Mamluk government is lost permanently.

Note: The Mamluk government doesn't set a minimum of 2   for rulers, but directly increases their administrative stat by 2. Due to the way ruler stats are calculated, it gives a 6/16 or 37.5% chance of getting a 6   ruler.

Normal   Chance Mamluk   Chance
0 1/16 N/A 0
1 2/16 N/A 0
2 3/16 2 (0 + 2) 1/16
3 4/16 3 (1 + 2) 2/16
4 3/16 4 (2 + 2) 3/16
5 2/16 5 (3 + 2) 4/16
6 1/16 6 (4 + 2) 3/16
N/A 0 6 (5 + 2)↓ 2/16
N/A 0 6 (6 + 2)↓ 1/16
  • ↓ indicates rounding down

Mamluk successionEdit

A Mamluk government does not produce heirs. Instead, the ruler of the sultanate is chosen by event when the preceding ruler dies. There is one candidate for each culture accepted in the country, plus a Circassian candidate, but their stats cannot be seen prior to choosing, only their ages, cultures and claim strengths. The claim of each candidate is equal to 100 minus the percentage of their culture in the total cored   state development of the country. For example, if the Egyptian culture makes up 75% of the nation's state cored development, an Egyptian ruler will start its reign with   25 legitimacy. If chosen, the Circassian ruler will start with   100 legitimacy, and will also provide   15 army tradition.

Cultural interactionsEdit

Each year, this government gathers 3 + ruler skill power in each monarch power categories ( / / ). Once 100 power in a category is reached, the related cultural interaction can be activated:

  •  Promote ruler culture in Government:   -5% all power cost for 1 year.
  •  Sell off ruler culture slaves:   Gain two times current age times   development of ruler culture ducats
  •  Recruit from ruler culture lands:   Gain 50 times current age times   development of ruler culture manpower

The current age multiplier is 1 for the   'Age of Discovery', 2 for the   'Age of Reformation', 3 for the   'Age of Absolutism' and 4 for the   'Age of Revolutions'.

Two out of three of these interactions are more powerful if the ruler culture is dominant in the country. However, rulers from a dominant culture start their reign with reduced   legitimacy, as explained above.

If not activated the points continue to gather until 150 is reached and any more is lost. The points will also reset if the current ruler dies.

MissionsEdit

Main article: Mamluk missions

EventsEdit

Main article: Mamluk events

Mamluk's events mostly focus on their relationship with   Cyprus, the   Ottomans, and   Ethiopia, but that mainly deals with the Coptic Patriarch in Cairo.

DecisionsEdit

id

 Form Arabian Nation

----

For hundreds of years the Arabs have been divided, but we remember when the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, organized all of us into one ummah, a community of the faithful that transcended tribal affiliation. Today we have overcome disunity and regained the oneness that triumphed in the day of the Prophet and united Arabia


 
Potential requirements

  Arabia does not exist.

The country:

If the country is AI-controlled, it can not be a custom nation or a former colonial nation.

Allow

The country:

  • has an administrative technology of at least level 10.
  • is not a subject nation other than a tributary state.
  • is not at war.
  • owns its core provinces:
    • Alexandria (358), Cairo (361), Aleppo (377), Jerusalem (379), Damascus (382), Medina (384), Mecca (385), Aden (388), Sana'a (390), Al-Arid (392), Al-Qatif (394), Muscat (400), Nizwa (403) and Baghdad (410).

Effects

This country:

  • changes to   Arabia.
  • gets   empire government rank.
  • gains permanent claims on all provinces of the regions: Mashriq, Arabia, and Egypt except Lower Nubia that it does not own.
  • gains   25 prestige.
  • gets the modifier “Increased Centralization” for 20 years with the following effects:
    •   −0.05 monthly autonomy change
    •   +1 national unrest

If the country:

  • is a member of the Holy Roman Empire but not an elector or the emperor
    • then all its provinces are removed from the HRE.

ReformationEdit

The Mamluks can be reformed by many other Levantine nations if they cease to exist.

 Adopt Mamluk Government

----

The Mamluks are still a strong factor in this region. We could gain their support by inviting these seasoned soldier slaves to participate in our government.


 
Potential requirements

The country:


Allow

Target Country:


Effects

Target Country:

  • moves its capital to Qahirah (361)
  • change government to   Mamluk government
  • becomes   Mamluks.
  • If not in a regency, current ruler will die; heir will die.
  • gets the modifier “Increased Centralization” for 20 years with the following effects:
    •   +1 national unrest.
    •   −0.05 monthly autonomy change,
  • gains  25 prestige.
  • the   event ‘New Traditions & Ambitions’ happens.
  • gains permanent claim on the Egypt region.

StrategyEdit

The Mamluks have a strategic position between Africa, Asia and Europe, so the aggressive expansion can and should be distributed across the three continents to allow more expansion. The Mamluks can also vassalize many of its small neighbours in Arabia, Maghreb or Anatolia, but they must be ready to protect them against the   Ottomans' threat.

NeighboursEdit

The Mamlukean neighbors are   Fezzan at the west,   Makuria,   Medri Bahri and   Beja in the south,   Medina at the south-east and   Aq Qoyunlu,   Qara Qoyunlu,   Ramazan and   Dulkadir in the north and north-east. In the east, Mamluks borders   Fadl and   Anizah.

Expansion into the WestEdit

In the west, the Mamluks' border is composed of   Fezzan. Fezzan can be and should be easily vassalized (due to coring costs making it expensive to core), and Fezzan also opens the door toward   Djerid,   Touggourt and   Mzab (if Tunis didn't annex them earlier). Control of Maghreb is easy, except   Tunis, who can sometimes ally with   Ottomans. One strategy is become a great power and force Tunis to break their alliance with Ottomans. Another strategy is to use "threaten war", in order to take the Tunisian provinces one by one. A third strategy is to quickly focus on Tunis before they get powerful allies.

Expansion into the SouthEdit

In the south, Mamluks borders 3 small countries :   Makuria,   Beja and   Medri Bahri. The player can easily conquer them, but the real threat from the south is   Ethiopia. Ethiopia typically annexes these neighbours quickly near the beginning of the game, and wishes to conquer the Coptic shrines in the Mamlukean territory. However they can be defeated alone or for new players, it is recommended to get alliance with   Adal to open a second front onto the Ethiopians and conquer their provinces or halt their growth at least.

Expansion into the South-EastEdit

If the player wants to expand their empire into the south-east, they should diplo-vassalize   Medina, which blocks them from having a land border with their subject   Hejaz, doing this you are given an event that lets Hejaz inherit Medina . Medina also controls the one holy city not owned by Mamluks or a subject, Medina, and typically has few powerful allies. Annexing/Vassalizing the coast of the Arabian peninsula also allows blocking the Ethiopian's advance into Arabia quickly.

Expansion into the North and North-EastEdit

In the north, there is one OPM,   Ramazan and one minor country,   Dulkadir. If the player wants to annex them, they should invade them soon as the Ottomans will want those provinces in order to limit Mamlukean expansion. On the north-east border, there are two hordes,   Aq Qoyunlu and   Qara Qoyunlu. Aq Qoyunlu isn't very powerful and is in the same situation as Dulkadir and Ramazan: Ottomans will want their provinces eventually, but one has time. Qara Qoyunlu is stronger and can be a threat if not controlled.

Expansion into the Mediterranean SeaEdit

The Mediterranean's isles are almost all controlled by   Venice, which is very likely a Mamlukean rival. The biggest challenge when facing Venice is, of course, its fleet, the great 'Arsenal of Venice', which outnumbers the Mamlukean fleet. The player is recommended to build a lot of galleys if they want to destroy the Venetian fleet and so be able to transport troops into Venice's heart lands. The player can also annex   Cyprus, but for that they need to revoke their guarantee of Cyprus (which can then be annexed by Ottomans or Venice before the truce expires and so is risky). An alternative way to annex Cyprus is to vassalize them first, but will take longer. After annexing Cyprus, the player can fabricate a claim on   The Knights, and, after invading the Knights, they can claim Negroponte and   Naxos.

Countering the OttomansEdit

The   Ottomans have a powerful army, and are the biggest threat the player faces in the beginning (historically being responsible for the Mamlukean decline). The Ottomans are sometimes allied with   Tunis, but Tunis is nowhere near powerful, and with an strong ally, Mamluks can beat Tunis and Ottomans easily. One of the best strategies to counter the Ottomans is to ally with some strong local powers like   Austria,   Muscovy,   Hungary, or   Qara Qoyunlu if not rivaled. Allying with one of these powers will allow an attack against the Ottomans from two fronts and can beat them. An alliance with   Castile/  Spain is another possibility in order to destroy the Ottomans' fleet, since without destroying the Ottomans' fleet, it will be harder for troops to cross the Marmara Sea and capture the Ottomans' capital, Edirne, or Constantinople if Byzantium is already annexed. An early no-CB war on   Byzantium in order to annex Constantinople and prevent Ottoman expansion should be considered. Fabricating claim on Teke and declaring war on ottomans when they are at war with   Byzantium is a good strategy. Player should prioritise taking Biga to prevent Ottomans from crossing . After winning the war player should take entire anatolian coastline in the peace deal . Vassalizing   Dulkadir and   Ramazan should be easy at this point.

AchievementsEdit

 
As the Mamluks, have 100 Army Professionalism and annex the Ottomans.
Country guides

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East African technology group     Kilwa
Muslim technology group     Mamluks  Tunis
West African technology group     Mali

Eastern technology group     Jerusalem
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Chinese technology group     Bali   Brunei   Dai Viet   Japan   Khmer   Korea   Majapahit   Malaya   Pagarruyung   Pasai   Sunda
Nomadic technology group     Jianzhou   Timurids   Uzbek

Western technology group     United States
Mesoamerican technology group     Maya
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Andean technology group     Cusco   Muisca
South American technology group     Mapuche