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Estates management tab.

Estates[1] are factions within the nation that influence domestic politics. Estates apply modifiers at the national level and may grant one-time bonuses or bonuses to specific provinces. They have two basic attributes: influence and loyalty; which depend on the amount of land they hold, event choices and several other factors.

The influence and loyalty levels of an estate determine their power within the country and how they "react" to the player's actions with them. These can be seen in the: nationwide bonuses or penalties provided by the estate, outcome effects of certain interactions provided through the estates, as well as their rebellion strength if worse comes to worst. Estates which grow too powerful can bring a disaster upon the nation. This may come into effect by the estate seizing control of the country or breaking it apart.

Estates can be granted privileges, which grant additional bonuses, but come with a price. Privileges can shape your nation in the early stages, but will likely become a burden while your country centralizes its power and grows its administration. You can influence your estates by granting and revoking privileges, and by ceding them lands or confiscating them.

The lands that are not owned by any of your estates is your crownland. Having more crownland means having a more direct control on your lands, but reducing the power of estates. Having less crownland means your estates will like you more and will be more impactful, but you will have a lesser control on your lands and your subjects.

There are a total of 11 estates, though most nations have access to 3 estates. The exact number may change during the campaign and depends on location, government and religion. Conquered provinces will change the distribution of lands in your realms. It is possible to add more estates to the game and change conquest behavior via modding.

Each state begin with its own distribution of lands, and for some its own already active privileges, which can be changed during the game.

Access to estates[edit]

Not all nations have access to all available estates. The reasons can vary from not being in the right geographical area, not being of a certain religion and so on -- further details on this are available under each estate's section.

Additionally, some government types do not have access to the estates mechanics altogether (they have other mechanics instead):

Estate modifiers[edit]

Note: Most of the values mentioned here are fully moddable[3].

  • Loyalty Estate loyalty is a measure of how willing the estate is to aid in the nation's government. It is a modifier that decays slowly towards a base value, the loyalty equilibrium, which depends of the share of lands it controls and the privileges he has been granted. The speed of decay depends on how further from 50 it is (further = faster) and on any other loyalty decay speed modifiers present at the time. Loyalty scales from 0 to 100, and is separated into three tiers: disloyal (0-29), neutral (30−59), and loyal (60−100). Loyalty determines what effects the estate confers, both on the provincial and national level. When disloyal, an estate confers only penalties; when neutral, it confers a single bonus; and when loyal it confers an additional bonus. The strength of the effects is determined by the estate's influence. Loyalty is affected by various national factors, events, decisions and territorial grants and revocations.
  • (Estate) influence Estate influence is a measure of how much power the estate has over the nation's government and scales from 0 to 100. Influence determines the strength of the national effects conferred by the estate's loyalty through four levels: 0−19 / 20−39 / 40−59 / 60−100. These levels modify the effects by a factor of 0.25 / 0.50 / 0.75 / 1. The provincial effects are not affected by influence. Moreover, if an estate's influence is 100, regardless of the estate's loyalty, the nation is at risk of the estate seizing power in a coup, in the form of a disaster. Influence affects also the strength as well as the possibility of some estate interactions. Each estate has a base level of influence, and is affected by estate interactions, various national factors, events, decisions, and territorial grants and revocations. Influence does not increase or decrease over time. Revoking privileges and seizing lands is the only player-controlled way to decrease influence. If an estate's influence drops to 0, it will grant no nationwide effects but will still appear in the Estates interface.
  • Territory Estate territory. Even though your estates have a certain share of the realm land, as of patch 1.30 no province is explicitly owned by an estate. An estate territory is thus represented only by the share of the realm land it holds. Land can be granted to an estate to increase its loyalty and influence. Land can be granted by two means : by selling titles every 5 years, which reduce your crownland share by 10% and distribute this amount to all the estates according to their previous share of lands (so that the ratio of lands between estates doesn't change), or by granting some privileges which reduce your crownland share but give the share to a specific estate. If you want to increase your crownland share, you can also seize land every 5 years, which grant 5% of the realm to the crownland, at the expense of the other estates, whose share of land is reduced according to their previous share (so that the ratio of lands between estates doesn't change), and whose loyalty is decreased by 20. If one seize land and one of the estate's loyalty fall under 30, rebels of the corresponding estate will spawn, and some provinces will gain +10 National unrest.png unrest.
  • Power (calculation) is based on how much an estate controls the development in the country. Influence of an estate increases by 0.5 for every 1% of land it controls, up to a maximum of 40. The dhimmi and tribes estates have modifiers that lower this factor (0.25 for each 1% for the dhimmi, and 0.2 for each 1% for the tribes).
  • Happiness equilibrium (calculation) is based on territorial grant/revocation. Loyalty equilibrium of an estate increases by 0.2 for every 1% of land it controls.
  • Privileges are a set of actions that can be taken towards estates, typically either giving something to the estate or requesting something from it. Interactions affect the estates' loyalty and influence in various ways.
  • (Estate) Disasters occur after an estate gains high influence levels (100). The estate disaster will begin ticking if the associated estate has below 60% Estate loyalty loyalty and the nation is not at war. Unless lowered, this will eventually trigger its associated disaster. During an active estate disaster all other estates will lose influence and loyalty as well as rendering most of their estate interactions inactive.


The land of a realm which has access to estates is divided among all the estates, and the crownland, which represents the land you "directly control". These lands are not represented by specific provinces in game (and neither are the lands of the other estates).

The share of crownland in the realm is linked to a series of bonuses which provide better benefits the higher this share is (as your realm becomes more centralized).

Crownland.png Crown land Maximum absolutism Autonomy.png Tax income.png Liberty desire from subjects development Absolutism.png
0 −50 +0.40 −20% +150%
1-4 −40 +0.30 −20% +100%
5-9 −30 +0.20 −15% +100%
10-19 −15 +0.10 −15% +50%
20-29 −10 −10% +25%
50-59 +5 +5%
60-74 +10 +10% +1
75-99 +15 −0.01 +15% +1
100 +15 −0.05 +20% +1

Most nations start the campaign with a base value of 29.999% crownland. The Papal States are one of the few exceptions, instead starting with 49%.

Crownland can be gained by:

  1. Seizing land from estates: The seize land estate interaction can be used every 5 years and provides an instant 5% boost to crownland. The button is only available when a nation is not at war. All other estates lose 20% loyalty and share of controlled land in proportion to the existing amount they have. Since each estate loses 20% loyalty on seizing land, it is advisable to call a diet immediately before doing this. The extra 5% boost to loyalty will help prevent rebellions caused by any estate's loyalty dropping below 30%.
  2. Developing provinces
  3. Conquering land with less than 60% estate influence.
  4. Conquering land with high absolutism. When gaining development like through conquering land each estate will gain land relative to their influence compared to the rest of the estates. The crown's influence is calculated as a base of 50% absolutism.


If your government has estates, you can grant privileges to them. Privileges are bonuses/penalty confered by estates in exchange for favors, represented by a modification of their Estate influence influence, Estate loyalty loyalty equilibrium, and/or share of lands, among others stats. Most of these bonuses/penalty are modifiers which last until the privilege is revoked, while others, are one-time effects which are applied each time such a privilege is granted.

Note that most privileges also reduce your Maximum absolutism max absolutism. Despite absolutism only playing a role mid/late game (allowing you to ignore this penalty in the early stages), for the absolutism era onward the impact on max absolutism is not to be neglected (as you can easily get a penalty of ~−50 Maximum absolutism, crippling your Administrative efficiency.png administrative efficiency).

You can have up to 4 privileges active at the same time for each of your estates. Removing a privilege reduce the Estate loyalty loyalty of the corresponding estate by 20, and if the loyalty of the estate drop below 30 by this action, rebel will spawn according to which estate is disloyal. Some of the privileges have a duration and trigger an event at the end of it asking you to renew (giving you again the corresponding one-time bonuses and the other bonuses/penalties) or abolish the privilege (with the usual penalties).


Once every 5 years, you can Summon the Diet, which increases the loyalty and the influence of all estates by 5. This influence modifier lasts 20 years (and stack for every Diet held in the mean time, for an effective maximum bonus of +20 influence). When you do so, an event happen, where each estate propose an Agenda, a kind of mission you must fulfill before a deadline, and the Diet asks you to choose one among them. Resolving an agenda grants 10 Estate loyalty loyalty from the corresponding estates, among other bonuses. Failing an agenda (i.e. not resolving it in time) will decrease the loyalty of the corresponding estate by 10, among other penalties. These agenda are akin to the old mission system, where many missions turned around solving current issues (like recovering manpower, gaining prestige, improving relation with a neighbor, etc...).


Strategy The below is one of many player suggested strategies for Estates. Bear in mind, due to the dynamic nature of the game, it may unfold differently for other players.
  • Generally, it is advisable to stay above 30% Crownland.png crown land at all times, as Tax income.png tax income is usually pretty important in an early game economy.
  • The 'Seize Land' action should be taken whenever possible (and when you are able to fight off the potential revolt should an estate be under 50% Estate loyalty loyalty when you use it) as it allows you to assign more privileges without suffering from low Crownland.png crown land. Also, using privileges instead of land to boost their influence will generally make them happier.
  • Avoid assigning privileges that make you lose Crownland.png crown land unless you plan to keep them for a long time.
  • You should strive to have all 3 'Primacy of ...' privileges asap. because All power costs.png monarch points are very important.
  • It is almost always worth it to go for agendas as they can provide substantial benefits and guide you in the right direction.
    • To that end you can use 'Summon the Diet' and even slot in 'Supremacy over the ...', which has the added benefit of making all your estates more loyal (Emperor).
  • Granting 'Monopoly on ...' can be a nice alternative to loans depending on your Interest per annum.png Interest Per Annum (you get about 80% of the good production income you would have made over the next 10 years).
    • Granting and maintaining monopoly privileges can also serve as a cheap way to gain Mercantilism.png mercantilism, especially for the less valuable monopolies.
  • It is quite difficult to start an Disaster.png estate disaster, but if an estate disaster does begin to count down, there are multiple ways to prevent it from firing.
    • Check if there are temporary modifiers on their Estate influence influence that are about to run out.
    • Keep their loyalty above 50, or be in a war (prevents the Disaster.png disaster from gaining progress).
    • Seize land or revoke privileges that grant influence.
  • If the Nobility estate becomes too influential or otherwise difficult to control, and you are at the appropriate reform tier, consider introducing the Parliament government reform, which will get rid of the estate in one stroke.
  • As you reach the age of absolutism, start cutting back privileges when you are about to hit your Maximum absolutism maximum absolutism cap. Having a lot of Crownland.png crown land allows you to keep more privileges until the end.


Czechs and Balances icon
Starting as Bohemia, grant at least two privileges to each estate while having at least 50% Crown Land.
Factionalism icon
Have 3 different estates in your country with at least 70% influence each.


  1. All individual estate files can be found in the /Europa Universalis IV/common/estates/ folder.
  2. The country is a Merchant Republic.
  3. See in /Europa Universalis IV/common/defines.lua

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