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Duchy rankBrunswick
Primary culture
Westphalian (Germanic)

Capital province
Brunswick (57)

Feudal MonarchyGovernment monarchy.png

State religion

Technology group
WesternWestern technology group
German ideas

For countries in the Culture icon.png Germanic culture group.

Traditions.png Traditions:

−15% Mercenary maintenance
+10% Infantry combat ability

Production efficiency.png Zunft

+10% Production efficiency

Trade efficiency.png Frühlings- und Herbstmesse

+5% Trade efficiency
+10% Domestic trade power

Diplomatic reputation.png Reichskreis

+1 Diplomatic reputation

National unrest.png Polizeiordnung

−1 National unrest

Missionary strength.png Cuius regio, eius religio

+1% Missionary strength

Diplomatic relations.png Thurn und Taxis

+1 Diplomatic relation

Prestige.png Residenzstadt

+1 Yearly prestige

Idea bonus.png Ambition:

−5% Technology cost

Brunswick is a small, landlocked country in the North Germany region. Brunswick starts the game as a member of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) and shares borders with multiple countries, including three HRE ElectorsFlag of Brandenburg Brandenburg, Flag of Cologne Cologne and Flag of Saxony Saxony.


The following event can fire for all countries which own the required provinces.[1]


Msg event.pngLeibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher, mathematician and political adviser important, both as a metaphysician and as a logician, and distinguished also for his independent invention of the differential and integral calculus. Born in Leipzig in 1646 he eventually ended up in the service of John Frederick the duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg.

Trigger conditions
  • This event fires only once.
  • Owns one of the provinces:
    • Hanover (1758)
    • Leipzig (62)
    • Altdorf (67)
    • Thüringen (63)
  • The year is between 1676 and 1716
  • ‘Gottfried Leibniz’ is not currently employed and is not available
Mean time to happen

120 months

Event button 547.png

Discounted Advisor Philosopher.png (level 3) Philosopher named ‘Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’ will be available.


Brunswick can reform itself into Flag of Hannover Hannover or Flag of Westphalia Westphalia. Any of these three can form Flag of Germany Germany.

Execute decision.pngForm Hanover

Now that we control the key provinces of this region, local nobles have no other choice but to accept our leadership. When they fall in line, the united duchy of Hanover will become the leading power of the region.

Potential requirements

Flag of Hanover Hanover does not exist.
The country:

If the country is AI-controlled,

  • it can not be a former colonial nation.
  • it can not be a custom nation.

The country:


If Hanover (1758):


  • Hanover (1758) leaves the HRE.
  • the emperor of the HRE:
    • loses Imperial authority.png1 imperial authority.
    • gets the opinion modifier “Removed provinces from the Empire” towards the country, worth Opinion.png−50 opinion with a yearly decay of 1.

Hanover (1758):

  • becomes the capital of the country.
  • gains Tax Base Icon.png1 base tax.

The country:

  • changes to Flag of Hanover Hanover.
  • gets permanent claims on the provinces Oldenburg (55), Osnabrück (56), Brunswick (57), Bremen (1874) and East Frisia (1931) that it does not own.
  • gains Prestige.png25 prestige.
  • gets the modifier “Increased Centralization” for 20 years with the following effects:
    • Autonomy.png −0.05 Monthly autonomy change
    • National unrest.png +1 National unrest

If Flag of Hanover Hanover

The AI will never enact this decision if it is a non-elector HRE member.

Execute decision.pngForm Westphalia

As the ideas of the Enlightenment are sweeping through Europe, we may choose to embrace them ourselves in Westphalia. Our future model state will feature ideas as revolutionary as equal rights for all male population, freedom for serfs and emancipation for the Jews, as well as enabling of free enterprise through abolition of socage and the guilds.

Potential requirements Allow

  • If Kassel (1762):
  • then
    • Kassel (1762) is removed from the HRE.
    • the emperor of the HRE:
      • loses Imperial authority.png1 imperial authority.
      • gets the modifier “Removed provinces from the Empire” towards the country, worth Opinion.png−50 opinion with a yearly decay of 1.
  • The country:
    • changes to Flag of Westphalia Westphalia.
    • changes government to a administrative monarchy.
    • sets capital to Kassel (1762).
    • gets the modifier “Increased Decentralization” for 20 years with the following effects:
      • Autonomy.png +0.05 monthly autonomy change,
      • National unrest.png −1 national unrest.
    • gets permanent claims on all provinces of Westphalia (area) and Lower Saxony that it does not own.
    • gets permanent claims on the provinces Magdeburg (52), Hessen (81), Kassel (1762) and Altmark (2964) that are not owned by Westphalia.
    • gains Prestige.png25 prestige.
  • If Flag of Westphalia Westphalia is a duchy
    • then it becomes a Kingdom rank kingdom.
  • A random owned province:
    • gains Tax Base Icon.png1 base tax.

Execute decision.pngForm German Nation

Regardless of the absence of a strong, central authority, our nation is prospering. The Hanseatic League, formed by hundreds of towns in northern Germany, has contributed to the prosperity of our nation. Intellectual growth, combined with sea and overland trading, has also helped spur the development and transform our country into a wealthy manufacturing center.

Potential requirements

Flag of Germany Germany does not exist.
The country:

If the country is AI-controlled then it:


The country:

  • has an administrative technology of at least 20.
  • is not a subject nation other than a tributary state.
  • is not a nomad nation.
  • is not at war.
  • is not the emperor of the HRE.
  • owns its core provinces:
    • Hamburg (44), Rostock (46), Berlin (50), Brunswick (57), Dresden (61), Thüringen (63), München (65), Nürnberg (67), Hessen (81), Köln (85), Pfalz (1761), Augsburg (1868) and Frankfurt (1876).
    • Königsberg (41) or Elsass (75).


The country:

  • changes to Flag of Germany Germany.
  • gets Empire rank empire government rank.
  • leaves the Holy Roman Empire.
  • gets permanent claims on all provinces of North Germany and South Germany that are not owned by Germany.
  • gains Prestige.png25 prestige.
  • gets the modifier “Increased Centralization” for 20 years with the following effects:
    • Autonomy.png −0.05 Monthly autonomy change
    • National unrest.png +1 National unrest

The emperor of the Holy Roman Empire:

  • gets the opinion modifier “Left the Holy Roman Empire” towards Germany worth:
    • Icon diplomacy relations.png−150 opinion with a yearly decay of 1.
  • gets the event ‘Germany breaks out of the Empire’.



Typically, Brunswick starts the game with Bohemia as a rival. Since being on an Elector's bad side tends to lead to problems, securing immediate allies is vital to staving off early aggression. Flag of Saxony Saxony is an excellent candidate to befriend, as they are not only an elector but can provide a decent (though not impregnable) military buffer against the likes of Brandeburg and Flag of Bohemia Bohemia. Outside the HRE, few options for diplomatic allies exist initially. With some time and effort, nations like Flag of Denmark Denmark and Flag of Brittany Brittany can be convinced into becoming formidable friends.

Smaller nations like Flag of Magdeburg Magdeburg and Flag of Anhalt Anhalt can be allied with a view to later becoming a vassal, though tying Brunswick to the fates of one-province minors (OPMs) does run the risk of dragging the player into wars they would rather not fight — an expansionist Flag of Poland Poland/Flag of Commonwealth Commonwealth, for example.

As a member of the HRE, currying favour with the Emperor (Flag of Austria Austria in 1444) is never a bad idea. Staying in the Emperor's good graces means the player is more likely to have their territory returned should it be conquered and, should one be so lucky, be granted the title of Elector should a seat open up. Similarly, cozying up to as many Electors as possible gives Brunswick a shot at ascending to the Imperial throne, which carries a not insignificant amount of benefits and responsibilities.


With no ports at the game's start in 1444, Brunswick's focus is initially set solely on European expansion in the heart of the HRE. This carries with it a fairly sizeable caveat: most, if not all, of the nearby territory will be protected by the Emperor. There are notable exceptions -- OPM Flag of East Frisia East Frisia, for example -- but these are few and far between. Thus, taking territory and avoiding the demands to return it requires tact, not just brute force.


A convenient quirk of Imperial diplomacy forbids the Emperor from actually sending the demand to return unlawful territory while the target is at war. This can be exploited by a crafty player through chaining wars together. In effect, before sending a peace offer for the current war, the player starts a second war. This means war will technically never be over for the player even after the peace deal is signed, meaning conquered territory can be cored and thus considered legal to own under Imperial law.

The downside to this is that, eventually, war must end. Even the most skilled general or charismatic diplomat must rest to allow manpower levels to recover and war exhaustion to fade. In such a weakened state, an overextended country is vulnerable to decisive counter-attacks that may mean the loss of conquered territory anyway, and perhaps more. Aggressive expansion (AE) penalties must also be closely monitored to prevent a sizable coalition from enacting swift revenge.


Instead of outright conquest, other countries can be turned into vassals even while members of the HRE (albeit after overcoming a -25 penalty). This avoids the unlawful territory issue while still allowing the player to benefit from a boost in revenue and fielded troops. Unfortunately, the steep penalty to vassalize an HRE nation often means a purely diplomatic solution may be difficult or impossible. A more direct method is forced vassalization through conquest, which achieves the same result assuming the war isn't fraught with opposing alliances. Regardless of which vassalization method is used, prime targets include Flag of Verden Verden, Flag of Oldenburg Oldenburg and Flag of Hesse Hesse.

Once a country is made Brunswick's vassal, diplomatic annexing can be done after a ten-year wait. This carries the usual penalty to diplomatic reputation, plus an additional penalty for annexing an HRE member. However, this is not considered unlawful acquisition of territory. If Brunswick is popular enough to afford to be hated, a slow, methodical absorption of nearby countries means Brunswick can grow in size without contravening Imperial law.

Personal Union[edit]

Similar to creating vassals, gaining personal unions (PUs) over other countries allows Brunswick to effectively increase its reach without drawing the Emperor's ire. Since many HRE nations lack heirs to start the game (as indicated by the "Disputed Succession" alert), royal marriages can pay dividends for the player should a foreign leader meet an untimely end. In the early game, neighbours like Saxony and Flag of Lüneburg Lüneburg are prime targets for PUs.

The trade-off for PUs versus vassals is that the integration timer is much longer for PUs — fifty years instead of ten. This, while the up-front diplomatic effort is minimal, the end result means a diplomatic relation slot will be tied up longer while the annexation timer ticks down. Furthermore, PUs are only possible with Christian monarchies. Brunswick neighbour Flag of Münster Münster, for example, is a theocracy and does not allow royal marriages; thus, they can never be brought under a union.


Electable! icon
Become an elector in the HRE as a country which does not start as elector.
An early Reich icon
Form Germany.


  1. The script code of the event can be found in /Europa Universalis IV/events/flavorHAN.txt.
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